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    Rules for Classification and Construction

    II Materials and Welding

    3 Welding

    1 General Requirements, Proof of Qualifications, Approvals

    Edition 2000

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    The following Rules come into force on July 1st, 2000

    Alterations to the preceding Edition are marked by beams at the text margin.

    Germanischer Lloyd Aktiengesellschaft

    Head Office

    Vorsetzen 35, 20459 Hamburg, Germany

    Phone: +49 40 36149-0

    Fax: +49 40 [email protected]

    www.gl-group.com

    "General Terms and Conditions" of the respective latest edition will be applicable

    (see Rules for Classification and Construction, I - Ship Technology, Part 0 - Classification and Surveys).

    Reproduction by printing or photostatic means is only permissible with the consent of

    Germanischer Lloyd Aktiengesellschaft.

    Published by: Germanischer Lloyd Aktiengesellschaft, Hamburg

    Printed by: Gebrder Braasch GmbH, Hamburg

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    Table of Contents

    Section 1 General Rules

    A. General ............................................................ .............................................................. ............. 1- 1

    B. Other Rules, Standards and Specifications ................................................................................. 1- 1

    C. Information in Working Documents ......................................................... .................................. 1- 2

    D. Materials, Weldability ....................................................................... ......................................... 1- 2

    E. Welding Consumables and Auxiliary Materials ................................................. ........................ 1- 2

    F. Quality Assurance, Responsibility ................................................................... ........................... 1- 3

    G. Inspection Tests, Liability ....................................................................... ................................... 1- 4

    Section 2 Requirements for Welding Shops, Approval

    A. Approval of Welding Shops .................................................... ................................................... 2- 1

    B. Requirements for Welding Shops ................................................................ ............................... 2- 2

    C. Inspection of Welding Shops ......................................................... ............................................ 2- 3

    D. Welding Procedure Tests ................................................................ ........................................... 2- 3

    E. Certification of Approvals, Certificates according to EN 729/ISO 3834 ................................... 2- 4

    Section 3 Welders Qualification Tests

    A. General ............................................................. ............................................................. ............. 3- 1

    B. Testing Bodies, Certificates .......................................................................... ............................. 3- 2

    C. Scope of Testing and Range of Approval ............................. ...................................................... 3- 2D. Performance of Welder's Qualification Tests ...................................................................... ....... 3- 3

    E. Period of Validity, Repeat Tests ............................................................. ................................... 3- 3

    F. Other Welder's Tests ........................................................ .......................................................... 3- 4

    Section 4 Welding Procedure Tests, Production Tests

    A. General ............................................................. ............................................................. ............. 4- 1

    B. Performance of Welding Procedure and Production Tests ................................................. ........ 4- 2

    C. Evaluation of Test Results, Requirements, Repeat Test Specimens, Test Reports ..................... 4- 5

    D. Limits of Application, Period of Validity ................................................................................ ... 4- 5

    Section 5 Welding Consumables and Auxiliary Materials

    A. General ............................................................. ............................................................. ............. 5- 1

    B. Covered Electrodes for Manual Metal-Arc Welding of Hull Structural Steels .......................... 5- 8

    C. (Flux-cored) Wire-Gas Combinations and Flux-Cored Wire Electrodes for Semi-

    Mechanized Welding of Hull Structural Steels .............................................................. ............ 5- 15

    D. Wire-Flux Combinations for Submerged-Arc Welding of Hull Structural Steels ...................... 5- 18

    E. Welding Consumables and Auxiliary Materials for Electrogas and Electroslag Welding of

    Hull Structural Steels ................................................................. ................................................ 5- 23

    F. Welding Consumables and Auxiliary Materials for High-Strength (Quenched and

    Tempered) Structural Steels ......................................................................... .............................. 5- 25G. Welding Consumables and Auxiliary Materials for Steels Tough at Subzero Temperatures ........ 5- 28

    H. Welding Consumables and Auxiliary Materials for High-Temperature Steels ........................... 5- 29

    II - Part 3

    GL 2000

    Table of Contents Chapter 1

    Page 3

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    I. Austenitic and austenitic-ferritic welding consumables and auxiliary materials for stainless

    steels, non-magnetic steels and nickel alloy steels tough at subzero temperatures ..................... 5- 33

    J. Welding Consumables and Auxiliary Materials for Aluminium Alloys ...................................... 5- 38

    K. Welding Consumables and Auxiliary Materials for Copper and Copper Alloys ........................ 5- 41

    L. Welding Consumables and Auxiliary Materials for Nickel and Nickel Alloys ........................... 5- 44

    Section 6 Overweldable Shop Primers

    A. General ................................................................... ........................................................... .......... 6- 1

    B. Testing and Approval of Shop Primers .................. ............................................................ ......... 6- 1

    C. Supervising the Use of Shop Primers, Production Tests ............................................................. 6- 2

    Annex A Application for Approval

    Annex B Description of Welding Shop

    Annex C Assessment Form for Welder Qualification Test Certification

    Annex D Welding Procedure

    Annex E Welding Consumables and Auxiliary Materials

    Chapter 1

    Page 4

    Table of Contents II - Part 3

    GL 2000

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    Section 1

    General Rules

    A. General

    1. Scope

    1.1 These Rules apply to all welding work per-formed in the course of new construction, conversionor repairs carried out on ships and their machineryinstallations, including steam boilers, pressure vesselsand pipelines, for which an application for classifica-

    tion has been submitted to Germanischer Lloyd (GL)or which have been classified by GL.

    Note:

    The terms "welding", "welding work", welding proc-ess etc. used in these rules also cover all other ther-mal and/or mechanized joining processes such asbrazing which, because they are deemed as special

    processes under the terms of the quality assurancestandards, require pre-qualification which has to becarried out by qualified personnel and constantlymonitored. These rules shall be applied in an analo-

    gous manner to these processes. Where no specialprovisions are made in the following paragraphs, thenature and scope of the quality assurance measuresrequired will be specified by the Society on a case-by-case basis.

    1.2 They also apply to all welding work on com-ponents, installations or implements for which theSociety has issued rules, regulations or other technicaldirections in which reference is made to these Weld-ing Rules.

    1.3 These Welding Rules shall be applied in

    analogous manner where other rules, regulations ortechnical directions issued by the Society contain nospecial instructions with regard to welding work.

    2. Application in other fields

    These Welding Rules may be applied in analogousmanner to welding work carried out on structures andcomponents other than those mentioned under 1., thesupervision and inspection of which is the concern ofthe Society. Where necessary, appropriate arrange-ments shall be made with the Society.

    3. Exceptions to these Rules

    Exceptions to these Welding Rules require the consentof the Society's head office in each individual case.

    4. Alterations and additions

    The Society reserves the right to alter or add to theseRules from time to time, should this prove necessaryon the basis of more recent knowledge or operatingexperience.

    B. Other Rules, Standards and Specifications

    1. Other relevant standards

    1.1 The standards or other technical directionsmentioned in the following sections form an integral

    part of these Welding Rules and shall also be com-plied with. The same applies to the working docu-ments, e.g. drawings, welding specifications, etc.approved by the Society.

    1.2 Where the following sections refer to stan-dards in which a date is specified, the current versionshall apply. Where no dates are specified, the versionof the standards which shall be applicable shall be theone valid at the time that these rules were issued. Theuse of later versions of these standards is subject to theconsent of the Society.

    1.3 Where the following sections and chaptersrefer to both EN and ISO standards, and if, where theyare both specified, the standards are not identical, theEN standards shall take precedence. Where the twostandards are identical, either the EN or the ISO stan-dard may be used.

    1.4 The application of other rules, standards,regulations or other technical directions is subject to

    the consent of the Society's head office in each indi-vidual case. The Society may make any such approvalconditional upon construction and dimensioning also

    being subject to these directions.

    2. Differences in requirements

    2.1 If there are differences in requirements be-tween these Rules and other relevant standards orspecifications, the requirements of these WeldingRules shall take precedence, unless otherwise stipu-lated.

    2.2 If there are differences between the differentlanguage versions of these rules or difficulties in in-terpretation, the German language version shall take

    precedence in each case.

    II - Part 3GL 2000

    Section 1 General Rules Chapter 1Page 11

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    C. Information in Working Documents

    1. Drawings, other working documents

    1.1 The drawings and other working documents

    to be submitted before commencing the fabricationwork must contain all the necessary details for the

    preparation, execution and, where applicable, theinspection of the welds.

    This information shall in particular include details of:

    Base materials, shapes and dimensions of prod-ucts

    Welding processes, welding consumables andauxiliary materials

    Shapes and dimensions of welds

    Preheating and heat input during welding Heat treatment after welding

    Subsequent treatment of the welds

    Nature and scope of inspections

    Requirements applicable to the welded joints(e.g. quality grade, weld performance, evalua-tion category or the like).

    1.2 Provided that in the fabrication of ship'sstructures, the materials, welding processes, weldingconsumables, auxiliary materials and the shapes and

    dimensions of welds conform to normal shipbuildingpractice, these Rules and the approvals, these detailsneed not be specified.

    2. Additional information and documentation

    For particular structures (e.g. liquefied gas tanks),materials (e.g. quenched and tempered structural steelsand clad plates) or welding processes, the followingadditional information and documentation shall be

    provided as necessary:

    Weld preparation, assembly, auxiliary (tack)welds

    Welding positions, welding sequence (drawings)

    Weld build-up, number of passes

    Heat input during welding (heat input per unitlength of weld)

    This information shall be combined in a weldingspecification (see Annex D). For test schedules andspecifications for non-destructive testing, please referto Chapter 2, Section 4.

    D. Materials, Weldability

    1. All materials shall be of proven weldability.They shall be chosen in accordance with the intended

    application and the conditions of service and shallcomply with the requirements stated in Part 1, Metal-lic Materials. Their properties shall be documented tothe specified extent by test certificates, e.g. in confor-mity with EN 10204.

    Note:

    The hull structural steels and rolled products de-scribed in Part 1, Metallic Materials, for the manufac-ture of steam boilers, pressure vessel, pipelines andmachinery are deemed to be of proven weldability.

    2. If, not withstanding para. 1., materials are tobe welded whose properties are not described in theSociety's Rules for Materials, the welding shop con-

    cerned shall furnish proof of their weldability (e.g. byreference to existing standards) or submit special ma-terial specifications for approval. If there is doubt as tothe weldability of a material, the welding shop shallspecially demonstrate this in the course of the welding

    procedure tests.

    3. The welding shop shall ensure that only ma-terials which meet the requirements of 1. and 2. areused for both original and replacement supplies, andshall furnish proof thereof to the Surveyor on request.

    E. Welding Consumables and Auxiliary Ma-terials

    1. The welding consumables and auxiliary ma-terials shall enable a welded joint to be made which issuited to the base material and the operating condi-tions. They shall have been tested for product suitabil-ity in accordance with Section 5and approved for theapplication in question. This provision applies in an

    analogous manner to brazing metals.

    2. Approval shall as a rule have been given bythe Society. If, in special cases, e.g. repairs, no weld-ing consumables which have been tested by the Soci-ety are available, welding consumables approved byother recognized testing bodies may be used with theSociety's consent. Relevant proof of this must besubmitted to the Societys surveyor.

    3. The welding shop's supervisors shall ensure

    that only tested welding consumables and auxiliarymaterials which have been approved by the Societyare used and shall furnish proof thereof to the Sur-veyor on request.

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    Section 1 General Rules II - Part 3GL 2000

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    F. Quality Assurance, Responsibility

    1. Compliance with Rules, Quality Inspec-

    tions

    1.1 Shipyards or welding shops are responsiblefor ensuring that the welding work conforms to theseand any supplementary rules as applicable, the ap-

    proved working documents, any conditions as may bestated in the approvals, good shipbuilding practice,and also the state of the art technology relating towelding.

    1.2 Shipyards or welding shops must ensure, bymeans of regular in-house quality inspections duringthe production process and at the end of the weldingwork, that such work has been properly and expertlyexecuted. The responsibilities of the welding supervi-

    sors are also covered in EN 719/ISO 14731. The teststo be performed by GL surveyors shall not relieve thewelding shop of this responsibility.

    1.3 The range and extent of the quality inspec-tions required is determined by the structure in ques-tion. In each case, however, it is necessary to ensurethat the specified materials, welding consumables andauxiliary materials are used and that weld preparation,assembly, performance of tack and welding work,together with the accuracy to size and completeness ofthe components and welded joints meet the require-ments.

    1.4 Following inspection by the welding shopand any repairs which may be necessary, the compo-nents must be presented to the Societys Surveyor forinspection at appropriate stages of construction, easilyaccessible and as a rule unpainted. The Surveyor mayreject those components which have been inade-quately inspected by the welding shop and specify thata component be presented again after a successfulinspection by the welding shop and, where necessaryrepairs.

    2. Placing subcontracts

    2.1 When placing orders with subcontractors,independent branch companies or suppliers as well asoutside companies working in the welding shop whoare themselves approved (so-called "contract compa-nies", cf. note to paragraph A.1.1 in Section 2) the"prime contractor" must ensure that the provisionsstated in 1. are also complied with by the "subcontrac-tors".

    2.2 Where the outside companies working in thewelding shop are not themselves approved or wherecontract labour is used, the welding shop placing thecontract shall be responsible for ensuring that the

    conditions stated in 1. are complied with and that thequality inspections are performed. The Society shall

    be notified of the placing of subcontracts or the use ofcontract labour.

    3. Deviation from approved working docu-ments, repairs

    3.1 If alterations to the design compared with theapproved drawings or deviations from approved fabri-

    cation procedures become necessary, the welding shopshall promptly obtain the Societys consent thereto.The Societys Surveyor shall be notified of any repairswhich become necessary during fabrication.

    3.2 If, due to inadequate or incorrect informationin the production documents (e.g. workshop draw-ings), the quality or functional capability of a compo-nent cannot be guaranteed or is doubtful, the Societymay require appropriate repairs to be carried out.

    3.3 This shall apply in an analogous manner tosupplementary or additional components (e.g. rein-

    forcements) even if these are not specified during theexamination of the drawing or could not be specifiedowing to a lack of detail shown in the "class plans"(cf. Construction Rules I Part 1, Chapter 1, Section1, G.).

    4. Marking and identification of materials

    4.1 The materials shall be marked in such a waythat they can be identified and matched up with thetest certificates even during and after fabrication.

    4.2 If the marking is likely to be erased during

    manufacture, the welding shop shall promptly see to itthat it is transferred to another part of the product.This can be dispensed with in the case of small partsof minor importance such as ribs or bracings, providedthat any confusion of materials can be prevented byoperational means.

    5. Marking of welds

    5.1 In the fabrication of steam boilers and vesselsunder internal pressure, each weld section shall bemarked with the symbol of the welder who executedit. This may be dispensed with if the welding shop

    supervisory staff keep a record of the names of thewelders who execute the individual weld sections.

    5.2 In special cases, the Society may also requiremarking or record-keeping as described in 5.1 forother components or their welded joints.

    G. Inspection Tests, Liability

    1. Presentation of components

    The welding shop shall be obliged to present the com-ponents to the Surveyor for the required intermediateand final inspections. Steps shall be taken to ensureunimpeded access to the welds. The welds shall not be

    II - Part 3GL 2000

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    treated with coatings or preservatives which make itdifficult or impossible to assess the condition of thewelds.

    2. Supplying of test documentation

    For the inspections, all the manufacturer's records anddocuments concerning the quality assurance measuresundertaken by him shall be submitted. These includein particular:

    Drawings (approved if required) and otherworking documents

    Material test certificates

    Welder's and welding procedure test certificates

    Test reports and films of the non-destructivetests

    Certificates of hot-forming and heat treatment,where applicable

    Results of production tests, intermediate resultsif necessary.

    3. Subsequent defects

    3.1 The Society gives no guarantee that the prod-ucts, welded structures or components tested by itsSurveyor to the extent laid down (normally randomtests) conform to the requirements in every respectand that their manufacture has been performed cor-rectly and in accordance with the tested procedures.

    3.2 Products or welded structures which provedefective in subsequent use or in the operation or

    processes which exhibit deficiencies in use may be

    rejected even if an earlier inspection was satisfactory,if it is not possible to remedy the defect or deficiency.

    Chapter 1Page 14

    Section 1 General Rules II - Part 3GL 2000

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    Section 2

    Requirements for Welding Shops, Approval

    A. Approval of Welding Shops

    1. General

    1.1 Shipyards and welding shops, includingbranches and subcontractors, wishing to performwelding work covered by these Rules must have beenapproved for this work by the Society (cf. Chapter 3).The preconditions for this approval are that the shopssatisfy the requirements under B.,have been inspected

    by the Society in accordance with C.and, where nec-essary, have carried out welding procedure tests inaccordance with D.

    Note:

    The term welding shop used in the following para-graphs is understood to mean the welding productionplant which, due to its space and organisational facili-ties, can be regarded as an independent unit.

    Branches and subcontractors shall generally be re-garded as independent facilities which have to meetthe requirements stated below. In particular, each

    welding shop must have available its own permanentin-house welding supervisory staff (cf. B.2.) Outsidecompanies working in welding shops may be approvedas independent companies. For details of this andcontract labour, cf.Section 1, F.2.

    1.2 Any approval in accordance with 1.1 coversthe most essential welding quality requirements inaccordance with the standards EN 729/ISO 3834. Forcertification under the terms of these standards, therequirements set out in 2.2 and 3.2 must also be met.These additional requirements shall be regarded ashaving been met when the welding shop has in place a

    certified quality assurance system in accordance withthe series of standards EN 29000/ISO 9000.

    1.3 In individual valid exceptions, e.g. in the caseof repairs, the Society may grant approval for weldingwork to be executed even without approval beinggranted to the welding shop, subject to a time limitand restricted to a specific structure, if the weldingshop pre-conditions have been specified for such workand the quality of the welds performed is demon-strated by relevant tests, e.g. non-destructive and/or

    production tests.

    2. Application for approval

    Introductory remark:

    Where no special provisions are given in the followingparagraphs or, in an individual case, no other ar-

    rangements are made, the provisions for "Approval"set out in accordance with these rules shall also applyin an analogous manner to "Certification" in accor-dance with EN 729/ISO 3834.

    2.1 Approval shall be applied for in writing to theSociety's head office. The application shall contain thefollowing details, which shall be related to each otheras far as possible, (cf. Description of Welding Shop,Annex B, item 2.), of the scope of the desired ap-

    proval: Nature of the structure and/or components

    Materials and dimensional ranges

    Welding procedures and positions

    Heat treatments (if necessary)

    Weld factor (for pressure vessels).

    2.2 If a certificate of compliance with the weld-ing quality requirements stipulated in EN 729/ISO3834-2, -3 or -4 is required over and above approval inaccordance with these Rules for Welding, this must beexpressly noted in the application for approval.

    3. Approval documents

    3.1 Welding shops applying for approval to carryout welding work must submit the following docu-ments to the Society's head office with their applica-tion for approval (cf. Annex A):

    A description of the welding shop; cf. the formin Annex B.

    Copies of the qualification documents of thewelding supervisor(s)

    Copies of the valid welder's certificates or a listof the qualified welders (testing standard, testingbody, date of testing, test category, date of lastretest) signed by the Surveyor.

    Copies of documentation as proof of the qualifi-cation of supervisory and test personnel, as ap-

    propriate.

    Copies of reports of welding procedure testsperformed elsewhere, including the approvalsgranted, as appropriate.

    3.2 For certification in accordance with 2.2, in-formation and documents relating to the elements

    specified in Annex Bto EN 729-1/ISO 3834-1 for therespective grade of requirement (EN 729-2/ISO 3834-2 = full, -3 = standard, or -4 = basic quality require-ments) must also be enclosed with the application for

    II - Part 3GL 2000

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    approval (e.g. in the form of relevant procedure in-structions):

    contract review

    design review

    treatment of subcontractors

    equipment maintenance

    quality inspections

    nonconformances

    calibration

    identification

    traceability

    If the welding shop operates a certified quality assur-ance system conforming to the series of standards EN

    29000/ISO 9000, the QA manual and - if specified inAnnex B to EN 729-1/ISO 3834-1 - documentationrelating to the quality assurance measures performed(quality reports) must be submitted to the Society forinspection in place of the above information anddocuments.

    4. Period of validity of approval, renewal

    4.1 An approval granted according to these Rulesor certification in accordance with EN 729/ISO 3834shall be valid for three years. Provided that weldingwork is constantly performed under the Society's su-

    pervision during the validity of the approval and thatthe preconditions on which approval was granted havenot changed, approval may be extended on application

    by the welding shop for further three years subject toan appropriate inspection.

    4.2 If no welding work has been carried out un-der the Society's supervision for more than a year, anapplication for renewal of the approval, enclosingupdated information as specified in 3., must be madeno later than the end of the 3-year period of validity.Approval may only be renewed if the necessary pre-conditions continue to apply, which shall be verified

    by a re-inspection of the welding shop. The approvalmay then be renewed for a further period of threeyears.

    5. Changes, revocation

    5.1 If the preconditions under which approvalwas granted change, e.g. through the use of untestedwelding procedures, materials and/or welding con-sumables, or if changes are made to the welding shopsupervisory staff, the Society shall be notified volun-tarily. As a rule, this necessitates a revision of theapproval.

    5.2 An approval shall cease to be valid if thepreconditions under which it was granted cease toapply. If serious defects are detected in the compo-

    nents or the welds, the Society is entitled to carry outinterim re-inspections of the production facilities andmay, if necessary, revoke the approval.

    B. Requirements for Welding Shops

    1. Technical equipment

    1.1 Welding shops must have at their disposalsuitable workshops, equipment, machinery and jigs ona scale necessary for proper performance of the weld-ing work. This includes, for example, the provision ofstorage facilities and baking equipment for the weld-ing consumables and auxiliary materials, preheatingand heat treatment equipment, testing appliances andequipment, and means of weather protection for carry-

    ing out welding work in the open air.

    1.2 Equipment and facilities not belonging to thewelding shop itself, e.g. testing appliances, may betaken into account when evaluating the capabilities ofa welding shop, provided that the preconditions neces-sary to proper fabrication and testing are satisfied andthat such equipment is available without restriction.

    2. Welding shop supervisory staff

    2.1 Welding shops or branches (cf. note to A.1.)shall have at least one fully qualified welding supervi-

    sor, who is responsible for ensuring that the weldingwork is competently performed. Welding supervisorsshall have training and experience corresponding tothe scope of the fabrication work and shall provide theSociety with the necessary documentary proof thereof.

    2.2 The names of the welding supervisor incharge and his deputy must be notified to the Society,cf. Annex B "Description of the Welding Shop", 3. Ifthe supervision role is carried out by more than one

    person, the responsibilities and tasks of each personmust be established and specified. The welding super-visor in charge and his deputy shall be recognised by

    the Society as part of the approval for the weldingshop.

    2.3 The following persons shall be appointed aswelding supervisors depending on the nature andscope of the work:

    Welding engineers 1 for fabrication of impor-tant components of the hull structure and of off-shore installations, also of handling equipment,steam boilers, pressure vessels, pressure linesand engine and transmission components

    1 e.g. professional welding engineers as defined in the guidelines

    of the European Welding Federation (EWF) or engineers withan equivalent level of knowledge

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    Section 2 Requirements for Welding Shops, Approval II - Part 3GL 2000

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    Welding specialists 2 for fabrication of simpleror less heavily stressed components.

    For information relating to the qualification of thewelding supervisory staff, their tasks and responsibili-ties, cf. EN 719/ISO 14731.

    2.4 The welding supervisor(s) shall be perma-nently employed by the welding shop. Supervision ofthe welding work by outside staff is not acceptable.

    3. Welders and operators

    3.1 Welding shops shall be staffed with qualifiedwelders and, for fully mechanized and automaticwelding equipment, adequately trained operators. Therequired number of qualified welders is determined bythe size of the welding shop and the scope of the weld-ing work to be performed under the Society's supervi-sion. However, a minimum of two qualified weldersare required for each welding process.

    3.2 Welders for manual and semi-mechanizedwelding must have passed a test in accordance withSection 3 and in conformity with a recognized stan-dard (e.g. DIN 8561, EN 287/ISO 9606 or ASMESection IX as applicable). The test shall cover theconditions likely to occur in the fabrication work withregard to the process(es), base material, welding con-sumable and welding position(s). The production oftest pieces in a successfully completed welding proce-dure or production test may be taken as proof of man-

    ual skill for testing of welders, cf. Section 3, B.4.

    3.3 Operators of fully mechanised or automaticwelding equipment and of welding robots must have

    been trained in the use of the equipment. They mustalso be capable of setting or programming and operat-ing the equipment in such a way that the required weldquality is achieved. The qualification of such person-nel must be demonstrated in accordance with EN1418/ISO 14732 on welded test pieces, e.g. in welding

    procedure or fabrication tests or by means of randomtests and operational tests as applicable (please refer tothe standards).

    4. Test supervisory staff and test personnel

    Where the welding shop has its own test supervisorystaff and test personnel (cf. Chapter 2, Section 4, C.),documentary proof of their qualification (e.g. certifi-cates conforming to EN 473/ISO 9712) shall be sub-mitted to the Society.

    2 e.g. welding technicians or welding experts as defined in the

    EWF guidelines or, if necessary, other persons with suitableknowledge

    C. Inspection of Welding Shops

    1. Shop inspection

    Before starting fabrication work, it shall be proved to

    the Society's Surveyor in the course of an inspectionof the welding shop that the requirements applicableto the technical equipment as stated in B.1.are satis-fied. For this purpose the Surveyor shall be givenaccess to all departments and laboratories relevant tofabrication and testing. The fabrication and qualitycontrol procedures shall also be described and ex-

    plained to him if he so requests. For certification ac-cording to EN 729/ISO 3834, compliance with theadditional quality requirements stated in the standardsshall be demonstrated to the Surveyor (cf. A.3.2).

    2. Submission of documentation

    As part of the welding shop inspection procedure,originals of all documents necessary in order to evalu-ate the fabrication and quality assurance proceduresshall be submitted to the Surveyor. These especiallyinclude the welding supervisors qualification docu-ments, welder's certificates, reports on previous weld-ing procedure tests, and results of quality tests andwelder's retests. For certification according to EN729/ISO 3834, compliance with the additional qualityrequirements stated in the standards shall be demon-strated to the Surveyor (cf. A.3.2).

    D. Welding Procedure Tests

    1. General provisions

    1.1 If welding procedure tests are required, theirsuccessful performance shall be a further preconditionfor the approval of a welding shop or for extending itsapproval. Requirements for the performance of thesetests and requirements applicable to test results aregiven in Section 4and in Chapter 3, Section 1to 5.

    1.2 Welding procedure tests shall be performedin such a way that the conditions of fabrication can becovered with regard to materials, welding processes,welding positions, welding consumables and auxiliarymaterials, wall thicknesses, shapes of welds and heattreatments. The properties of the base materials for thetest pieces shall be documented by test certificates.

    2. Scope of the welding procedure test

    Note:

    Please refer to the detailed information given inSection 4, D.

    2.1 In general, a welding procedure test is validonly within the limits specified in the approval and isnot transferable from the welding shop where it is

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    performed to a different welding shop. The Societymay permit exceptions in the case of a nearby branchwelding shop which is under the constant supervisionof the main welding shop, where the same fabricationconditions prevail and where the same welding proc-

    esses are used.

    2.2 Welding procedure tests performed in aworkshop are in general not simultaneously valid forwelding in the field. In such cases, the welding proce-dure test must be repeated in whole or in part underfield conditions as determined by the Society. TheSociety may waive the repeat testing by prior agree-ment if the properties of the field welds are docu-mented by production tests.

    3. Recognition of other tests

    Welding procedure tests performed under the supervi-sion of other testing bodies which are independent ofthe works may be recognized in full or in part by theSociety at the welding shop's request if this is accept-able on the basis of the test results. In such a case, thecomplete test reports and the approval certificate ofthe other testing body shall be submitted to the Societyfor evaluation.

    E. Certification of Approvals, Certificatesaccording to EN 729/ISO 3834

    1. The Society issues certificates for the ap-

    proval of welding shops to carry out welding work andfor welding procedure tests if the requirements set outin these rules are satisfied in the tests. These weldingshop and welding procedure approvals are valid withinthe limits stated in the certificates.

    2. Where proof has been furnished that the addi-tional requirements listed in A.3.2 according to EN729/ISO 3834 have been met, the Society issues acertificate based on this in accordance with this stan-dard.

    3. If previously issued approval certificates arereplaced or supplemented by more recent ones (cf.A.5.1) and the details in the more recent approvalcertificates contradict those of previous approvals, thedetails in the more recent certificate shall be valid.This applies especially to the range of application, e.g.for a specific welding process.

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    Section 3

    Welders Qualification Tests

    Preliminary remarks:

    The following rules for the testing of welders conformto or make use of the standards EN 287 resp. ISO9606, Parts 1 (Steel) and 2 (Aluminium). For othernon-ferrous metals, DIN 8561 shall continue to applyuntil the corresponding parts of EN 287 and ISO 9606come into force.

    Where no details of the tests are specified in thefollowing Rules, the tests shall be performed inaccordance with these standards. References in thetext also refer to these standards unless otherwise

    specified.

    Some deviations from the standards have been madewith regard to the testing of steel welders (EN 287-1resp. ISO 9606-1), especially in relation to the rangesof approval for base materials and weld types whichhave been somewhat narrowed down compared withthe standards. As far as the testing of non-ferrousmetal welders is concerned, it is chiefly the weld formswhich differ from those of the standard.

    A. General

    1. Required testing (welding processes)

    1.1 Welder's qualification tests are required forall welders who are to perform welding work usingmanually guided welding appliances (as for manualmetal arc welding or semi-mechanized gas-shieldedmetal arc and/or welding using flux-cored electrodes)and where the quality of the welded joints depends

    mainly on the manual skill of the welder.

    1.2 For welders who are required to performwelding work on steam boiler installations, the "Tech-nische Regeln fr Dampfkessel" (Technical Rules forSteam Boilers) TRD 201, Annex 2, Guidelines fortesting and supervising boiler welders, shall also becomplied with. The inclusions and exclusions speci-fied in these Regulations shall apply hereto.

    1.3 The qualification of operators of fully mecha-nized and automatic welding equipment and of weld-ing robots, shall be demonstrated in accordance with

    EN 1418/ISO 14732 on welded test pieces e.g. as partof the welding procedure or fabrication tests or bymeans of random tests and operational tests (cf. thestandards).

    2. Training, manual skill, knowledge

    2.1 Welder's qualification tests may only betaken by welders who have received appropriate pre-vious training (both practical and theoretical) and whohave had sufficient opportunity to practise the craft.

    2.2 Besides the necessary manual skill, thewelder shall also possess the professional knowledgeenabling him to perform the welding work compe-tently and safely. Cf. the relevant information in thestandards.

    Note:

    In accordance with the foreword to DIN EN 287 relat-ing to German practice, the job knowledge tests de-

    scribed in Annex D of the standard (for informationpurposes) are required for welders taking the test (and

    employed) in the Federal Republic of Germany.Welders who work in the Federal Republic of Ger-many and who have not taken a job knowledge testmust demonstrate that they at least have knowledge ofthe area of health and safety at work and accident

    prevention in accordance with the legislation applica-ble at the time. Such proof is the responsibility of thewelding shop.

    3. Lists of welders, symbols

    3.1 Welding shops are required to maintain listsor files which furnish information about the number,names (code number) and test scope of the weldersand the dates of their initial and repeat tests (cf. AnnexC"Assessment Form"). These lists shall be submittedto the Society for examination on demand togetherwith the relevant original documentation or, whereappropriate, together with the description of the weld-ing shop (cf. Section 2, A.3.).

    3.2 Each welder shall be assigned an unmistake-able symbol, which shall be recorded in the testingdocumentation (certificates, lists, etc.). The Society

    may in addition - depending on the application - re-quire the components and welds to be marked with thesymbol of the welder who performed the work; cf.also Section 1, F.5.

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    B. Testing Bodies, Certificates

    1. Initial tests in the welding shop

    The initial testing of welders in the welding shop is tobe conducted by the welding supervisory staff in thepresence of the Society's representative. Followingsubmission of the assessment forms completed by thewelding shop and initialled by the Surveyor (cf.Annex C), these tests will be confirmed by the Soci-etys head office in the form of test certificates.

    2. Repeat tests in the welding shop

    2.1 Repeat tests taken by welders who have beencertified by the Society or by those certified by otherrecognized testing bodies and recognized by the Soci-ety may be conducted independently by the weldingengineer recognized by the Society in conjunctionwith the approval granted to the welding shop. Testsconducted by other welding supervisors shall be car-ried out in the presence of the Society's representative.

    2.2 The extension of the validity of a test certi-fied by the Society by a further two years may, how-ever, only be authorised by the Society. For this pur-

    pose, a full set of test documentation (welding proce-dure specification, assessment form and test certifi-cate) must be submitted to the Surveyor. Cf. E.4.

    3. Tests conducted by other testing bodies

    Welder's qualification tests conducted by other testingbodies (e.g. welding training and testing establish-ments or welding training establishments, cf the fore-word to DIN EN 287) which are independent of thewelding shopand which are recognized by the Soci-ety will be recognized by the Society subject to the

    test categories specified below. Such recognition issubject to the submission to the Society of a full set oftest documentation, as described in 2.2 above.

    4. Tests conducted as part of the weldingprocedure tests

    The testing of welders may be included in the weldingprocedure tests (cf. Section 4, B.5.3)and their nameswill then be included in the welding procedure ap-

    proval. A welders qualification test certificate con-forming to the standards may, however, only be issued

    provided that all the provisions of the standards, e.g.scope of test and jobknowledge testing, have been metand that this is recorded in an assessment form whichhas been completed accordingly (cf. Annex C).

    C. Scope of Testing and Range of Approval

    1. Base materials

    1.1 In the case of base materials - and in contrastto the provisions of the standards EN 287-1 resp. ISO9606-1 - higher-strength (hull structural) steels with aminimum yield strength ReHof up to 355 [N/mm] (upto 360 [N/mm] in the case of pipe-grade steels) shallonly be considered, following testing, as being in-cluded in the material category W 01 if the test (usingthe appropriate welding consumables) was also per-formed on a higher-strength steel.

    1.2 Unless otherwise stipulated by the Society ina particular case, the test categories conforming to thestandards shall also apply to the base materials. The

    Society may, however, require a more precise subdivi-sion of the categories in accordance with the note toChapter 3, Section 1, F.2.

    2. Joint types

    2.1 In the case of joint types - and in contrast tothe provisions of the standards - the test performed on

    butt welds does notalso includes fillet welds. Wherewelders are required to lay down butt welds as well asfillet welds, both weld forms must be included in thetest.

    2.2 Unless otherwise stipulated by the Society ina particular case, the test categories conforming to thestandards shall also apply to the weld forms.

    3. Other inclusions and exclusions

    Unless otherwise specified by the Society in a particu-lar case, the inclusions and exclusions stipulated in thestandards shall otherwise apply.

    4. Deviations, special features, particularapplications

    4.1 If deviations from the standards or theserules for testing are to be included in the weldersqualification test, this shall be agreed with the Society

    beforehand. The kind of the deviation or special fea-ture is to be indicated on the assessment form under"Remarks" and will be noted in the test certificate.

    4.2 Welder's qualification tests for particularapplications (particular materials, shapes of weld,welding processes) which are not covered by the tests

    and work assignments described above and in thestandards (e.g. for clad plates or offshore pipe junc-tions) shall be carried out according to a test scheduleto be agreed with the Society on a case-by-case basis.

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    D. Performance of Welder's QualificationTests

    1. Welding of test pieces, Welding Procedure

    Specification (WPS)

    For welding test pieces, a "Manufacturers" WeldingProcedure Specification (WPS) shall be produced bythe welding shop - a separate one for each weldingtask - in accordance with the Annex Cof the standardsEN 287 resp. ISO 9606. The welding conditions fortesting shall match those during fabrication.

    2. Test pieces, specimen types and tests

    The test pieces, the specimen types and the perform-ance of the tests shall conform to the standards.

    3. Evaluation of test pieces and specimens,recording of results

    3.1 Depending upon the kind and scope of thetests, test pieces and specimens shall be evaluated,conforming to the specifications of the standards,according to the following criteria:

    Thickness, reinforcement and appearance ofweld (external results)

    Radiograph (internal results)

    Appearance of fracture (internal results)

    Mechanical properties, where applicable

    Metallographic specimen, if required.

    3.2 A welder shall be regarded as having passedthe test provided that the imperfections fall within thelimits of assessment category B conforming toEN 25817 resp. ISO 5817. Exceptions to this ruleinclude the following imperfections: weld reinforce-ment too large (butt and fillet welds), excessive filletweld thickness and excessive root reinforcement, towhich assessment category C applies.

    3.3 A test shall only be passed as successful if allthe requirements stated in the standards relating to thetest piece in question and the specimens taken from itcan be evaluated as having been met. Repeat test

    pieces and specimens are subject to the specificationsof the standards EN 287 resp. ISO 9606.

    3.4 The assessment form provided at Annex Cisto be used to record the details and results of the tests(p = passed, np = not passed). Additional sheets shall

    be used as necessary.

    E. Period of Validity, Repeat Tests

    1. Standard period of validity

    A welder's qualification test remains valid for two

    years with effect from the test date, provided thatduring this period welding work is constantly per-formed in the range of approval of the test and thework of the welder is monitored by the welding super-visors at all times. This is to be confirmed by thewelding supervisors on the welders qualification testcertificate at intervals of no more than six months. The

    provisions given in the standards in this regard shallalso apply.

    2. Reduced period of validity

    2.1 The Society may reduce the validity of the

    test (e.g. to one year) if the supervision of the welder'swork mainly takes the form of visual inspections.

    2.2 A repeat test relating to an individual weldingprocess is required where a welder who has beentested in more than one welding process has not usedthe process in question for longer than six months.

    2.3 A repeat test is in any case necessary where awelder has not performed any welding work as de-fined in para 1. for longer than six months.

    2.4 The Society may demand a repeat test at anytime should reasonable doubts arise as to a welder'sskill.

    3. Continuous supervision

    3.1 A repeat test may be dispensed with wherethe quality of the work performed by the welder in thework assignment range corresponding to his test cate-gory is systematically and verifiably monitored duringfabrication by the welding shop's welding engineerrecognized by the Society and this is confirmed, asdescribed above in paragraph 1 above, at intervals ofno more than six months.

    3.2 For this purpose the following measures shallbe implemented at times of which the welder has noprior knowledge and which shall occur at intervals ofnot more than three months:

    Destructive tests on test welds or sections ofweld produced by the welder (wherever possi-

    ble, in the most difficult positions), and/or

    Non-destructive tests for defects on productionwelds provided that these tests can be docu-mented (e.g. by means of radiographs).

    3.3 The results of these tests are to be noted in

    the lists of welding personnel (cf. A.3.1)and are to besubmitted to the Society for examination and confir-mation at intervals of not more than one year. Pleaserefer to the standards.

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    4. Extensions to the period of validity, repeattests

    4.1 The validity of a welders qualification testcertified by the Society may be extended by a further

    two years at a time only if specified by the Society onthe test certificate provided that the preconditionsrelating to this as stated above resp. in the standardshave been met and provided that this was confirmed

    by the employer (welding supervisor) on the test cer-tificate for the six month period as applicable.

    4.2 An extension may only be certified for therange of approval in which the initial test took place.

    4.3 If the conditions under which an extension isgranted, as specified above, are not met a repeat test isto be carried out conforming in scope to the initial test.

    If a repeat test is carried out with a restricted scope oftesting compared with the initial test, the subsequentrange of approval is determined by scope of testing ofthe repeat test.

    F. Other Welder's Tests

    1. Other rules and standards

    1.1 The Society may consent to the performance

    of welder's qualification tests in accordance with other

    comparable recognized rules, standards or codes. Thework assignments of welders tested in accordancewith these tests will be specified in analogous mannerto the above Rules, depending on the scope of testing.The period of validity is as specified in E.

    1.2 Welder's tests conforming to other rules,standards or codes which have been conducted by anindependent testing body in analogous manner toB.3.may be recognized by the Society subject to theforegoing provisions. The relevant welding procedurespecifications, test reports, test certificates and, uponrequest, the relevant rules, standards or codes shall besubmitted to the Society for this purpose.

    2. Exceptions

    In justified exceptional circumstances (e.g. repairs),the Surveyor may, subject to a specified time limit andto limitation to a particular structure, authorise theemployment of well-trained and experienced welderswithout the documentary qualifications stipulatedabove, provided that he has reason to believe that thewelders concerned are competent to perform the workenvisaged and that the quality of the welds produced

    by them can be verified by suitable, e.g. non-

    destructive tests.

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    Section 4

    Welding Procedure Tests, Production Tests

    A. General

    1. Welding procedure tests in the user'sworks

    1.1 Welding procedure tests shall be carried outunder the Society's supervision in the user's works

    before starting the fabrication work according to thescope described in the relevant sections of Chapter 3

    for the different areas of application under workshopconditions. Workplace conditions (weather protection,welding equipment, operating jigs, welders, produc-tion allowances etc.) and any intended extreme cold-forming operations as well as heat treatments of thematerials and/or the welds where applicable shall forman integral part of the welding procedure tests.

    1.2 The Society may dispense with a weldingprocedure test for certain "standard" processes onmaterials which are easy to weld where the quality ofthe welded joints essentially depends on the choice ofthe welding consumables and the manual skill of the

    welder, e.g. manual metal arc welding (SMAW) orsemi-mechanised gas-shielded metal arc welding(GMAW), of normal-strength hull structural steels,comparable construction steels, forgings or steel cast-ings, except for vertical-down (PG) welding.

    Table 4.1gives a summary of the documentary proofrequired for recognition of welding processes in thedifferent areas of application. The provisions in theindividual sections of Chapter 3 do, however, take

    precedence.

    1.3 Welding procedure tests which have already

    been carried out under the supervision of other inde-pendent testing bodies and certified by them are sub-ject to the provisions of Section 2, D.3.In such casesthe Society reserves the right to demand that supple-mentary production tests be carried out before the startof fabrication or during production.

    1.4 In individual, technically justified exceptionalcircumstances (e.g. repairs), the Surveyor may, subjectto a specified time limit and to limitation to a particu-lar structure, authorise the use of particular welding

    processes without carrying out a welding proceduretest beforehand, provided that proof is furnished by

    means of other suitable tests (e.g. non- destructiveweld tests and/or production tests) that the welding

    process in question is being applied correctly andsafely.

    2. Preliminary welding procedure test

    2.1 A preliminary welding procedure test shall becarried out on the premises of manufacturers of weld-ing equipment or welding consumables or at researchinstitutions if, for special reasons, an immediate weld-ing procedure test in the user's works appears inappro-

    priate.

    In this test, the welding parameters and, where appli-

    cable, the post-weld heat treatments shall conform tothe conditions prevailing in the user's works. In allother respects, the provisions governing welding pro-cedure tests in the user's works apply.

    2.2 The preliminary welding procedure test doesnot relieve the user's works of the obligation to carryout a definitive welding procedure test. On the basis ofthe preliminary test, a simplified test schedule for thedefinitive welding procedure test may be accepted.

    3. Production tests

    3.1 Production tests shall be performed to theextent described in the relevant sections of Chapter 3in the course of fabrication to monitor the quality ofthe welded joints. Test pieces welded at the same timeas the production welds (e.g. in the course of a longi-tudinal weld of a plate, pipe or vessel shell ring) orsections of production welds may be used for this

    purpose. Where applicable, the test pieces shall as faras possible be heat-treated together with the compo-nent. As a rule, the production tests shall comprise

    both non-destructive tests and mechanical and techno-logical tests.

    3.2 Production tests are also required if a particu-lar welding process has not been used under the Soci-ety's supervision for a long time or if processes and/ormaterials to be welded require constant verification ofthe weld quality. The nature and scope of such pro-duction tests shall be established on a case-by-case

    basis.

    3.3 In addition, the Society may require produc-tion tests to be carried out if the way in which thewelding work is performed gives rise to doubts as tothe quality of the welded joints or if individual weld-ing parameters, welding consumables or auxiliary

    materials have been changed or changes have beenmade in the welding shop personnel. The scope ofsuch production tests will be established on a case-by-case basis.

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    3.4 For production tests in conjunction withoverweldable shop primers, please refer to Section 6,C.

    B. Performance of Welding Procedure and

    Production Tests

    1. Application for approval

    1.1 Application for approval of a welding processand for the performance of a welding procedure testshall be made to the Society's head office, with simul-taneous notification of the competent Surveyor, givingthe following details (to be specified in Annex B,item 2 "Description of Welding Shop":

    Range of application (components, materials,

    plate/wall thicknesses, pipe diameters, weld fac-tor where applicable)

    Welding process

    Welding positions

    Welding equipment and parameters

    Weld shapes, weld build-up

    Welding consumables and auxiliary materials

    Joint preparation

    Cold- or hot-forming operations prior to welding

    Overweldable shop primers

    Welding jigs and weather protection

    Preheating and heat input during welding

    Post-weld heat treatment, other after-treatment

    Welders (qualification tests)

    Date of test.

    Note:

    Annex D contains a form to specify the welding proce-dure (WPS) and recording the test results (WPAR) inconformity with DIN EN 288/ISO 9956.

    1.2 Where possible, the application should en-close a proposal for a test schedule in accordance withthe rules set out in Chapter 3 with sketches and di-mensions of the test pieces, describing the intendedspecimens and tests. If the information and parametersstipulated in 1.1 are based on in-house standards orother (welding) specifications, these are also to beenclosed with the application.

    2. Scope of testing, requirements, test

    schedule

    2.1 The scope of testing (test pieces, specimens,

    etc.), tests and requirements for the individual fields ofapplication (shipbuilding, steam boiler and pressurevessel fabrication, pipeline fabrication, etc.) are de-scribed in the relevant sections of Chapter 3of these

    Rules, while details of the non-destructive tests aregiven in Section 4 and details of the mechanical andtechnological tests in Section 5of Chapter 2.

    2.2 If a test schedule appropriate to the intended

    field and range of application has already been drawnup by the applicant in accordance with 1.2 and 2.1 asapplicable, this must be agreed with the Society beforestarting the tests. Otherwise such a test schedule must

    be drawn up by the applicant - with the agreement ofthe Society - and submitted to the Societys HeadOffice for final authorisation.

    3. Materials, welding consumables and auxil-

    iary materials

    3.1 The materials used in the welding proceduretests must be unambiguously identifiable on the basis

    of their marking and certificates. The direction ofrolling of the test pieces must be ascertainable. If not,check specimens shall be prepared and tested.

    3.2 The welding consumables and auxiliary ma-terials should if possible have already been tested andapproved by the Society; however, they may be testedand approved at the same time as the welding process.Cf. Section 5, A.1.4.Approvals of this type are gener-ally restricted to the user's works and are valid for amaximum of one year, unless repeat tests are per-formed in accordance with Section 5, A.3.

    3.3 Welding consumables and auxiliary materialsused in the welding procedure tests may only be re-

    placed in the subsequent fabrication work by others ofthe same kind which bear the Society's approval if thisis expressly stated in welding procedure approvalcertificate; cf. also A.3.3.

    4. Test pieces, dimensions, direction of roll-ing, weld form, welding positions

    4.1 The shape and size of the test pieces shall becompatible with the welding procedure concerned andthe number of specimens. The most commonly usedtest pieces are described in the relevant sections ofChapter 3.The dimensions of the test pieces may bechanged if this does not adversely affect the test and isnecessary for evaluating the process. Unless otherwisestipulated in an individual case both butt welded andfillet weld test pieces shall be welded in the specified

    positions for the fabrication process.

    4.2 For vertical welding (e.g. electrogas or elec-troslag welding) the length of the test piece (length ofthe weld) shall conform to the production welding jig,while with appliances using a fusible wire-guide elec-trode, the length of the test piece shall be geared to the

    length of the wire-guide electrode or the height of thecomponents to be welded, as applicable. Any specialfeatures affecting the application of these processes(e.g. welding operations performed through the deck)

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    shall be allowed for in determining the shape of thetest piece.

    4.3 The plate thicknesses shall be chosen in ac-cordance with the information on the limits of applica-

    tion in the relevant sections of Chapter 3 in line withthe intended range of application. Where possible, twodifferent plate thicknesses should be welded and testedfor each range of application. The weld form shall bethose to be used in subsequent practice in line with thewelding process.

    4.4 Where the characteristics of the weldingprocess or the dimensions, and hence the number ofpasses which these entail, are likely to have a consid-erable effect on the results of the test, the thickness ofthe test pieces and the number of passes shall be madeto conform to the limit thicknesses for the range of

    application concerned. In the case of vertical down-ward welding, the thickness of the test piece shall bethe upper limit thickness of the range of application,whereas with a variable number of passes dependingon the plate thickness (e.g. with single- and multi-passwelding) the scope of the test shall include the varioustechniques and the thickness of the test pieces shall bechosen accordingly. The same applies in analogousmanner to the weld thicknesses.

    4.5 Normally, test pieces shall be welded in allthe positions occurring in subsequent practice. De-

    pending on the welding processes and materials con-cerned, it may be agreed to restrict the test to certainspecified welding positions, e.g. in the case of manualarc welding or semi-mechanised gas-shielded metalarc welding the test may be limited to the positionsapplicable to the corresponding welder's qualificationtests as stated in Section 3. The horizontal-vertical

    position PC (h-v) is, however, always to be includedin the welding procedure test for single-side welding.Where overhead welding PE (o) is included, this may

    be combined with the downhand position PA (d).

    4.6 The direction of rolling of the plates shall beparallel to the direction of welding. The orientation ofthe rolling direction shall be stated in the test report.

    5. Welding of test pieces

    5.1 All welding procedure tests shall investigate,in accordance with workshop practice, the effects of

    prior cold-forming operations, weld preparation aspractised in the welding shop and air gap exactness,restraints together with the use, where applicable, ofoverweldable production coatings (shop primers).Difficult fabrication conditions (e.g. limited accessi-

    bility) shall be simulated in the welding proceduretest.

    5.2 Welding shop facilities, welding equipment,aids to assembly and tack welds used in the test shallconform to those used in actual production. In thedownhand and vertical positions, account is to be

    taken of the maximum anticipated angular deviationsfrom the theoretical welding position (e.g. slope ofslipway).

    5.3 Where possible, several (at least two) welders

    or two teams of operators shall participate in a weld-ing procedure test. As part of the welding proceduretest, each welder or team of operators, as applicable,shall carry out anew the preparation (tack welding) ofthe test pieces, the alignment of the welding appli-ances, and the setting of the current supply and feedrate.

    5.4 Preheating, heat input per unit length of weld,interpass temperature, electrode changing and thestarting and stopping of welding appliances (starting

    points/end craters) shall conform to subsequent prac-tice. Covered electrodes are to be used down to theclamping butt.

    5.5 In welding procedure tests, depositing a back-ing run on the root side (cap pass), with or withoutgrooving of the root depending on the process, aregenerally permitted. In single-side welding, the sametypes of backing shall be used as in the subsequentfabrication work.

    5.6 In the case of mechanised welding processesin shipbuilding, an interruption of the welding opera-tion followed by complete cooling of the test pieceand restarting of the equipment shall be demonstrated.The machining of the end crater and the preparation of

    the new starting point shall be carried out in accor-dance with normal practice. The test results from theseweld areas will be evaluated separately.

    5.7 Minor welding defects occurring in thecourse of a welding procedure test may, with the con-sent of the Surveyor, be repaired or ignored when

    preparing specimens. In the case of serious defects,the causes shall be established and remedied, afterwhich new test pieces shall be welded.

    5.8 The following data shall be recorded whenwelding the test pieces:

    Shape of weld and method of preparation

    Weld build-up and number of passes

    Welding consumables and auxiliary materials(type, trade name, dimensions, quantities)

    Method of root grooving and interpass clean-ing/treatment

    Preheating, interpass temperatures

    Welding equipment and parameters (amperage,voltage, welding speed, heat input per unitlength of weld)

    Interruptions/disturbances in the welding se-quence

    Names of welders/operators

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    Special features applying to the tests (e.g. cli-matic influences, limited accessibility).

    6. Post-weld heat treatment, other kinds ofafter-treatment

    6.1 If post-weld heat treatment of the compo-nents (e.g. annealing to relieve stresses) is intended inthe subsequent fabrication work, the test pieces are to

    be subjected to the same post-weld heat treatment.This applies in analogous manner to other types ofafter-treatment, e.g., TIG after-treatment of the weldinterfaces. If approval of the welding process is de-sired for both the untreated and after-treated condi-tions, the test shall be carried out for both conditions.

    6.2 Where possible, post-weld heat treatment of

    the test pieces should be carried out in the annealingfurnaces which are to be used for the fabricated com-

    ponents. The equipping of the annealing furnace witha temperature recorder is mandatory. The time-temperature curve shall be recorded. Other types ofafter-treatment shall be described in the test report.Further information on post-weld heat treatment isgiven in Chapter 2, Section 3.

    7. Non-destructive testing

    7.1 Prior to sectioning, each butt-welded test

    piece shall undergo visual and non-destructive testingover the entire length of the weld to detect any exter-nal or internal welding defects. Unless otherwiseagreed, the test pieces shall be radiographed and thosewith a thickness of 30 mm or over (10 mm or over inthe case of single-side submerged-arc welded test

    pieces) shall additionally undergo ultrasonic testing.

    7.2 Where the base materials or weld metals areliable to crack, surface testing for cracks shall be car-ried out in addition to the above. If the material ismagnetizable, this shall take the form of magnetic

    particle inspection; otherwise the dye penetrant

    method shall be used. The Society may require spe-cific testing intervals (e.g. 72 hours) to be adhered to

    between completion of the welding work and per-formance of the crack tests.

    7.3 Each K-shape or fillet-weld test piece (T-joint or cruciform test piece) shall undergo a visualinspection for external welding defects. Test piecesmade from a material other than normal-strength hullstructural steel or comparable simple structural steelsshall in addition be subjected to testing for surfacecracks.

    7.4 In contrast to the recording limits stated forthe production tests, all welding defects and indica-tions detected during non-destructive ultrasonic testingshall be recorded.

    8. Sectioning of test pieces, preparation ofspecimens

    8.1 Sectioning of the test pieces shall be carriedout as described in the relevant sections of Chapter 3.

    The test pieces shall be sectioned mechanically. Ifthermal cutting methods are employed, a sufficientmachining allowance shall be provided and the heat-affected zone must thereafter be machined off.

    8.2 The individual specimens shall be markedbefore sectioning and during machining in a waywhich enables them to be identified at all times andtheir orientation in the test piece to be reconstructed.

    8.3 From all butt-welded and fillet-welded (cruci-form) test pieces for manual and semi-mechanisedwelding processes, one set of specimens each shall

    normally be taken and tested. From the test pieces forfully mechanised welding processes, one set of speci-mens each from the beginning and end of the weldshall be taken and tested. In the case of these latter test

    pieces, a third set of specimens from the middle of theweld may be additionally demanded in special circum-stances, e.g. where long seams are concerned or thewelding process has been recently developed. Wheresingle-side submerged-arc welding is performed withflux backing, a third set of specimens shall be sub-

    jected to test in every case.

    9. Shapes and dimensions of test specimens,

    mechanical and technological tests

    9.1 The shapes and dimensions of the specimens,the preparation and performance of the tests and thedetermination of the results are subject to the provi-sions of Chapter 2, Section 5.Furthermore, the corre-sponding provisions in the Rules for Materials (Part 1,"Metallic Materials", Chapter 1, Section 1and 2)shallalso be complied with.

    9.2 All tests shall be carried out by trained staffusing calibrated testing equipment. The testing equip-ment shall be maintained by its owners in fully func-

    tional condition and shall be calibrated at regular in-tervals by an independent testing body.

    9.3 Unless otherwise stipulated or agreed, allmechanical and technological tests shall be performedin the presence of the competent Surveyor. The mi-crographs shall be submitted to him for evaluation.

    C. Evaluation of Test Results, Requirements,Repeat Test Specimens, Test Reports

    1. Designation of test results

    1.1 To ensure that the description and evaluationof welding processes and positions, test results, etc.

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    are as clear and uniform as possible, use shall be madeof the terminology and symbols in the relevant stan-dards (e.g. ISO 857, EN ISO 6947, EN 26520/ISO6520, EN 25817/ISO 5817, EN 30042/ISO 10042)and, for internal defects, Table 4.1in Chapter 2, Sec-

    tion 4. The position of a defect or fracture must beindicated and may be designated as follows:

    WM = in the weld metal

    FL = in the transition zone (fusion line)

    HAZ = in the heat-affected zone (of the basematerial)

    BM = in the base material.

    2. Requirements, repeat test specimens

    2.1 The requirements are specified in the relevantsections of Chapter 3.

    2.2 If, in the tests, individual specimens fail tomeet the requirements or the failure of these speci-mens is due to localised defects in the specimen ordeficiencies in the testing equipment, it is sufficient totest two repeat test specimens or sets of repeat speci-mens in each case from the same test piece, whichmust then meet the requirements.

    2.3 In the testing of notched bar impact testspecimens, unless otherwise specified in a particularcase, the average value of three specimens shall apply;

    none of the individual values may be less than 70 % ofthe required value. If these conditions are not met andthe average value is not less than 85 % of the requiredvalue, three repeat test specimens may be tested andthe results added to the values originally obtained. Thenew average value from these six specimens must thenmeet the requirements. If the average value of the firstthree specimens is less than 85 % of the requiredvalue, six repeat test specimens shall be tested, theaverage value of which must meet the requirements.

    2.4 If the requirements are not met by a sizeablenumber of specimens and/or in several areas of test-

    ing, the causes of the failures shall be investigated.When the faults have been cured, new test pieces shall

    be welded and fully tested.

    3. Reports, storage times

    3.1 Reports (cf. Annex B)shall be prepared of alltrial welds and tests and submitted to the Society induplicate, signed by the tester and the testing supervi-sor.

    3.2 The debris of test pieces, specimens and thetest documentation are to be kept until all the tests and

    inspections are concluded by the confirmation of ap-proval issued by the Society. For the storage time ofdocuments relating to the non-destructive testing ofwelds (e.g. radiographs), see Chapter 2, Section 4.

    D. Limits of Application, Period of Validity

    1. Works and sub-works

    1.1 Welding procedure approvals are generally

    non-transferable. The Society may allow exceptions inthe case of a nearby branch works where the weldingwork is carried out under the constant supervision ofthe main works, provided that the fabrication work is

    performed under the same conditions and the samespecified welding processes are used. The Societymay, however, require proof as to whether the welding

    processes are being applied correctly and the me-chanical properties are adequate by means of non-destructive tests and/or simplified production tests

    1.2 Welding procedure tests performed in aworkshop are in general not simultaneously valid for

    welding in the field. In such cases, the welding proce-dure test must be repeated in full or in part under fieldconditions as determined by the Society. The Societymay dispense with repeat testing by prior agreement ifthe qualitative properties of the field welds are dem-onstrated by production tests.

    2. Range of application

    2.1 The other materials included in a weldingprocedure approval on the basis of the testing of aparticular material are indicated in the relevant sec-tions of Chapter 3.

    2.2 With regard to plate thicknesses, unless oth-erwise stated in the relevant sections of Chapter 3orin a particular case a plate thickness range of approx.0,7 1,7 t (t = tested plate thickness) shall apply tohull structures according to Chapter 3, Section 1and arange of 0,75 1,5 t shall apply in the other fields ofapplication according to Chapter 3.The Society maylimit this range of application, in accordance with thestandards (EN 288/ISO9956), to 0,8 1,1 t or extendit to 0,5 2 t; cf. the Sections in Chapter 3. In the caseof vertical downward welding (PG), the thickness ofthe plate tested shall in each case be regarded as the

    upper limit of application.

    2.3 The welding procedure approval is generallyvalid for the welding positions tested. Depending onthe welding process, particular welding positions may

    be included; these are stated in the approval documentwhere applicable.

    2.4 The welding procedure approval is valid forthe welding process, the weld form and weld build-uptested.

    2.5 The welding procedure approval is valid forthe heat treatment condition for which the test was

    performed, e.g. untreated, annealed to relieve stresses,normalised.

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    2.6 Any minimum or maximum design or operat-ing temperatures taken into account during testing arestated in the procedure approval document. The for-mer is generally 5 C above the test temperature.

    3. Period of validity

    3.1 A welding procedure approval is generallyvalid without limit of time or with a time limit - de-

    pending upon the range of application; cf. Table 4.1and the relevant sections of Chapter 3. This is, how-ever, always provided that the conditions under whichit was granted do not change significantly.

    3.2 The welding procedure approval is tied to theapproval of the welding shop to perform welding workand expires when the approval of the welding shop

    expires. For renewal of the welding shop approvaldocument (cf. Section 2, A.4.), it must be demon-

    strated to the Society that the approved welding proc-esses have not be changed in the current productionrun and have been used without any significant de-fects.

    3.3 For the production tests necessary in individ-ual fields (e.g. steamboiler, pressure vessel) of appli-cation to maintain the validity of a welding procedureapproval, please refer to A.3.The Society will checkthe aforementioned conditions in the course of thethree-yearly renewal of the welding shop approval; cf.Section 2.

    3.4 The Society may revoke part or all of a weld-ing procedure approval and require a fresh welding

    procedure test or fresh production tests if doubts ariseas to whether a welding process is being applied cor-rectly or safely or if defects in or damage to the welds

    made by this process lead to the conclusion that thequality of the welded joints is inadequate.

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    Section 5

    Welding Consumables and Auxiliary Materials

    A. General

    1. Approval procedure, marking

    1.1 All welding consumables and auxiliary mate-rials (welding wires and rods, covered electrodes, fluxcored wires, (flux cored-) wire-gas or wire-flux com-

    binations, etc.) which are to be used within the rangeof approval of the Welding Rules or other Rules, regu-lations, etc. issued by Germanischer Lloyd must betested and approved by the Society for that purpose inaccordance with the following provisions. The samealso applies an analogous manner to brazing materials,the tests and requirements for which will be specifiedon a case-by-case basis.

    1.2 Approval is normally granted on the basis ofspecimen welds and tests carried out on the weldmetal and the weld joints on the manufacturers prem-ises under the Societys supervision with each indi-vidual product (individual manufacturers brand) inaccordance with 1.1, for which approval was appliedfor. For details of transfers of approvals, cf. 2.

    1.3 An inspection of the manufacturers produc-tion facilities (production workshops, stores etc.) andespecially the internal quality assurance measuresapplied shall be carried out in the course of normal

    production in conjunction with the approval tests.

    Note:

    The quality requirements relating to the manufacture,supply and marketing of welding consumables and theprocesses applied are described in EN 12074/ISO14344. Unless other or contrary provisions relating tothis are stipulated in the following paragraphs, thequality requirements stated in this standard may beused as a basis for the inspection of the manufac-turers facilities.

    1.4 For the approval of welding consumables andauxiliary materials in conjunction with a (preliminary)welding procedure test, see also Section 4, B.3.2.Theuser must have consented to the approval (on behalf ofthe manufacturer). In such cases the testing of the pureweld metal shall also be included in the scope of thewelding procedure tests. Testing of specimens takenfrom the welded joint is not regarded as testing of the

    pure weld metal.

    1.5 Where approval is applied exclusively forauxiliary materials such as ceramic backing strips (i.e.not in conjunction with welding consumables), their

    properties shall be tested, and where appropriate their

    effect on the quality of the welded joints establishedon the basis of the relevant product standards or themanufacturers specifications in accordance with a testschedule to be specified in each individual case.

    1.6 If welding consumables and auxiliary materi-als are to be approved in exceptional cases on the

    basis of approval tests conducted elsewhere by otherbodies recognized by the Society (e.g. other classifica-tion societies, Deutsche Bahn AG [German Railways]

    or Technical Supervisory Authorities) the completetest reports shall be submitted (initial test not olderthan 5 years and, if applicable, the last 3 annual repeattests) and - if nothing else has been stipulated by theSociety - tests at least corresponding to the compul-sory (annual) repeat tests shall be performed.

    1.7 In isolated, urgent cases, consent may excep-tionally be given for the use of welding consumablesand auxiliary materials which have been approved byother recognized classification societies or neutraltesting authorities (e.g. Deutsche Bahn AG, TechnicalSupervisory Authorities), though such consent shall besubject to a time limit and shall be restricted to a par-

    ticular structure. In the case of larger projects, themanufacturer shall simultaneously apply for approval.

    1.8 Applications for approval according to AnnexA shall be submitted in one copy to the Society's headoffice, with simultaneous notification of the competentSurveyor, giving the following information and ac-companied by the most recent catalogues resp. techni-cal data sheets with the properties guaranteed by themanufacturer (especially chemical composition,strength and toughness values):

    Manufacturer's name and manufacturing works(name of licensor, where appropriate)

    Nature of the welding consumables and auxil-iary materials

    Manufacturer's brand (licensor's designation,where applicable)

    Dimensions for which approval is applied for(diameters, lengths)

    Grades for which application is made, includingadditional symbols

    Proposed range of application, including forexample base materials, welding processes,welding positions for which approval is sought,

    heat treatment condition and any special operat-ing conditions (e.g. low temperatures)

    Instructions for use (welding current, polarity,baking, heat treatment, etc.)

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    Classification to DIN, EN, ISO or other stan-dards

    Marking, packaging

    Any previous approvals (e.g. from other classi-

    fication societies Deutsche Bahn AG [GermanRailways], Technical Supervisory Authority)

    Proposed testing laboratory and date of test.

    The statements of conformity ("Affidavits") specifiedin 2.2 shall also be enclosed with any application fortransfer of approval. The form provided in Annex Emay be used to list the information specified above.

    Note:

    Classification to DIN, EN, ISO or other standards isperformed by the manufacturer and is included in theapproval certificate and in the list of weldingconsumables and auxiliary materials approved by theSociety. Where possible classification is performed to

    EN standards, but where these are not well-knownclassification shall be to other rules which have thewidest possible circulation. For space reasons,however, only the designation of the standard is

    generally given in the list (not the title of the relevantstandard). Classification is not normally covered bythe tests and is therefore not part of the approval

    granted by the Society; cf. 4. If the Society is alsorequired to check and confirm the classification inaccordance with the standards, a separate application

    should be made to this effect

    1.9 The applicant is generally the manuf