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MARMARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ TEKNOLOJİ FAKÜLTESİ TAŞIT TEKNOLOJİSİ HAZIRLAYAN: Yrd. Doç. Dr. Abdullah DEMİR Şasi, Çerçeve ve Gövde - Karoser/i III

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Page 1: MARMARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ TEKNOLOJİ FAKÜLTESİ...Reading text - Body materials Sheet steel Sheet steel of various grades (see Vehicle-body sheet metal is customarily used for the

MARMARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ TEKNOLOJİ FAKÜLTESİ

TAŞIT TEKNOLOJİSİ

HAZIRLAYAN:

Yrd. Doç. Dr. Abdullah DEMİR

Şasi, Çerçeve ve Gövde - Karoser/i

III

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Şasi ve Karoser Malzemeleri

How many types of steel are there? Steel is not a single product. There are more than 3,500 different grades of steel with many different physical, chemical, and environmental properties. Approximately 75% of modern steels have been developed in the past 20 years. Modern cars are built with new steels that are stronger but up to 35% lighter than in the past. Ref.: http://www.worldsteel.org/faq/about-steel.html

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HATIRLATMA: Çelik Nedir?

Demir - karbon alaşımının içinde; max. %2’ye kadar KARBON, 1 MANGAN, %0,5 SİLİSYUM, %0,05’den az KÜKÜRT ve FOSFOR varsa bu malzemeye çelik denir.

• Çelik; %2’ye kadar C içeren demir alaşımına verilen isimdir.

• Otektoit çelik; %0,8 C içeren çeliğe ötektoit çelik adı verilir.

• Bu kompozisyonun altındaki çeliklere ötektoit altı çelikler (C oranı < %0,8), bu bileşimden daha fazla C içeren çeliklere ötektoid “st“ çelikler (C oranı > %0,8) adı verilir.

• C oranının %2’yi geçmesi durumunda malzeme artık çelik olarak değil, dökme demir (cast iron) olarak adlandırılır.

%C oranına göre < %0,1 C Saf demir %0,1 C - %0,2 C Az D“ş“k karbonlu çelik %0,2 C - %0,5 C Orta karbonlu çelik %0,5 C - %2,06 C Y“ksek karbonlu çelik

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HATIRLATMA: ÇELİKLER HAKKINDA: • Maksimum %2,06 C içeren ve ek işlem gerektirmeksizin

şekillendirilebilen Fe-C alaşımıdır. Genellikle sünek malzemelerdir.

• Uygulanan ısıl işlemlerle mekanik özellikleri örn. sertlikleri, dayanımları ve tane boyutları değiştirilebilir.

• Çeliğin özelliklerinin değişimine özellikle de sertliğin değişimine en fazla etki eden element karbondur.

• Çelik, demir-karbon alaşımı olup diğer alaşım elementlerini de belli oranda içerebilir. Binlerce farklı kompozisyonda ve/veya farklı ısıl işleme sahip çelik çeşidi mevcuttur. Mekanik özellikler, çeliğin bileşimine ve uygulanan ısıl işleme bağlı olarak değişmektedir.

• Çelik bileşimine bağlı olarak içerdiği alaşım elementlerine ve uygulanan ısıl işleme göre farklı özellikler gösterirler.

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HATIRLATMA: KARBON ORANININ ETKİSİ Çelik içersine ilave edilen karbon oranı, çeliğin dayanımını ve sertliğini etkiler.

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Volkan ÇABUK, OYAK RENAULT Malzeme Laboratuvarı Sorumlusu; Ekim 2013 v1.1

Malzeme Seçimi

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MATERIALS IN A TYPICAL VEHICLE

ADVANCED AUTOMOTIVE MATERIALS: THE NEW DNA OF PERSONAL MOBILITY, GM, 2011

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Body and Closure Metallic Material Content by Type Mild

50 year Perspective of Automotive Engineering Body Materials and an Analysis of the Future , Jody N. HallJody Hall Manager, Global Die Standards & Materials Applications Manager, Applications General Motors Manufacturing; Engineering General Engineering Great Designs in Steel 2008Great 2008

Source: Ducker Worldwide

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Body and Closure Metallic Material Content by Type

Source: Ducker Worldwide

50 year Perspective of Automotive Engineering Body Materials and an Analysis of the Future , Jody N. HallJody Hall Manager, Global Die Standards & Materials Applications Manager, Applications General Motors Manufacturing; Engineering General Engineering Great Designs in Steel 2008Great 2008

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North American Light Vehicle Material Content Per in Pounds

Source: Ducker Worldwide * Same vehicle mix and average footprint as 2007

50 year Perspective of Automotive Engineering Body Materials and an Analysis of the Future , Jody N. HallJody Hall Manager, Global Die Standards & Materials Applications Manager, Applications General Motors Manufacturing; Engineering General Engineering Great Designs in Steel 2008Great 2008

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Kaynak: Mohammed A. Omar; T(E AUTOMOT)VE BODY MANUFACTUR)NG SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES - 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. ISBN: 978-0-470-97633-3

A typical automobile is composed of variety of materials to constitute its structure, aid its mobility function, e.g. tires and fluids, and provide comfort to its occupants, e.g. glass and refrigerants.

Figure: The materials in a typical sedan

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Volkan ÇABUK, OYAK RENAULT Malzeme Laboratuvarı Sorumlusu; Ekim 2013 v1.1

Araç Üzerindeki Malzeme Dağılımı

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Volkan ÇABUK, OYAK RENAULT Malzeme Laboratuvarı Sorumlusu; Ekim 2013 v1.1

M1 Segmenti Araçların Yıllara Göre Ağırlık Değişimi

HATIRLATMA: M Kategorisi Araçlar: En az dört tekerlekli, motorlu yolcu taşıma amaçlı araçlardır. / M1 kategorisi araçlar: Sürücü dışında en fazla sekiz kişilik

oturma yeri olan, yolcu taşımaya yönelik motorlu araçlardır.

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Kaynak: Şase ve Karoseri Sunumu, TÜVTURK, 8/ / 6.

• Şasi Malzemeleri • Karoseri Malzemeleri St – 42 yaygın olarak kullanılan bir malzemedir. Kaynağa çok iyi gelir, pres altında rahat şekil verilebilir. St-50, St-60, St-70 çelikleri de kullanılır. Bu malzemeler daha çok kaynak kullanılmayan perçin bağlantılı şasiler için uygundur. Kaynağa gelmezler ç“nk“ karbon miktarları y“ksektir. İnce saç dediğimiz 3 mm altındaki saç malzeme kullanılır. Karoseri saçı olarak kullanılan çelik St-10’dur. Ayrıca hafif metal kullanımı da mevcuttur. Hafif metalin avantajı b“y“k sön“m kabiliyeti ve y“ksek şekil verme kolaylığıdır. Korozyona karşı tercih edilen bir malzemedir. Kendi kendini taşıyan sistemlerde iskelet ve saç aksamı için hafif metaller kullanıldığında taşıt ağırlıkları önemli miktarda d“şmektedir. Korozyona karşı dayanıklı olmaları nedeni ile de bazı yerlerde Al - Mg - Si alaşımı hafif metaller kullanılmaktadır.

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Kaynak: Şase ve Karoseri Sunumu, TÜVTURK, 8/ / 6.

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Audi Q7 Servis Eğitimi

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Audi Q7 Servis Eğitimi

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Modern araçlarda iyileştirme alanları

2006 Model Passat

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2006 Model Passat

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Reading text - Body materials

Sheet steel Sheet steel of various grades (see Vehicle-body sheet metal is customarily used for the vehicle body structure. Sheet thicknesses range from 0.6 ... 3,0 mm, with most pieces being between 0.75 and 1.0 mm thick. Due to the mechanical properties of steel with regard to stiffness, strength, economy and ductility, alternative materials for the vehicle body structure are not yet available. High Strength low-alloy (HSLA) sheet steel is used for highly-stressed structural components. The resulting high strength of these components allows their thickness to be reduced. Ref: Automotive Handbook - Bosch

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HATIRLATMA

Süneklik (Ductility): Plastik şekil değiştirme kabiliyetini ifade eder. Bu değerin b“y“mesi, malzeme kopana kadar daha b“y“k plastik şekil değiştirme göstermesi anlamına gelir. Kopma uzaması ve alan daralması parametreleri ile ifade edilebilir.

Gevreklik: Plastik şekil değiştirme kabiliyetinin olmaması durumunu ifade eder. Eğri bazen elastik sınırda bazen de elastik sınıra çok yakın bir noktada son bulur.

Tokluk: Malzemenin kopana dek absorbe ettiği toplam enerjiyi ifade eder. - eğrisinin altında kalan alana eşittir. S“nek malzemelerin tokluğu gevrek malzemelere göre daha y“ksektir.

Rezilyans: Malzemenin elastik şekil değişimi sırasında depoladığı enerjidir. - eğrisinde elastik bölgenin altında kalan alana eşittir.

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Reading text - Body materials

Aluminum In order to reduce weight, aluminum can be used for separate body components such as the hood, luggage-compartment lid, etc. Since 1994, an aluminum body has been in use for one of the German luxury-class cars. The vehicle's frame is constructed from aluminum extruded sections, and the sheet components are self-supporting in integrated form (ASF Audi Space Frame). The realization of this principle necessitated the employment of suitable aluminum alloys, as well as new production processes and special repair facilities. According to the manufacturers, the rigidity and deformation characteristics are identical to those of steel or are even superior. Ref: Automotive Handbook - Bosch

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An Increasing Trend

http://www2.prnewswire.com/mnr/duckerworldwide/37515/

1 pound = 453,59237 gram

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Automotive Handbook - Bosch

Table: Examples of alternative materials

Plastics: Plastics as materials for separate body components are used in a limited number of cases in place of steel.

Reading text - Body materials

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Volkan ÇABUK, OYAK RENAULT Malzeme Laboratuvarı Sorumlusu; Ekim v .

Polimerler PA- Poliamid: Konnektörler, fanlar, depolar, jant kapakları, manifolt, ön çamurluk, radyatör tankları, yakıt boruları vb. PP- Polipropilen: Tampon, havalandırma parçaları, ayna kapakları, iç giydirme parçaları ABS- Akrilonitril-Butadiyen-Stiren: Stop lambası kabini, konsol, kapı panel destekleri, koltuk kabini PC- Polikarbonat, PMMA- Polimetil Metakrilat: Far ve lamba gövdeleri, siviç ve konnektörler POM- Polioksimetilen: Tapa, mekanik çalışan dişli parçaları PE- Polietilen: Çamurluk iç giydirme, depolar NR- Doğal kauçuk: Araç lastiği, silecek, takozlar EPDM- EtilenPropilenDiyenMonomer : Kapı fitilleri, contalar

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Volkan ÇABUK, OYAK RENAULT Malzeme Laboratuvarı Sorumlusu; Ekim 2013 v1.1

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Volkan ÇABUK, OYAK RENAULT Malzeme Laboratuvarı Sorumlusu; Ekim 2013 v1.1

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Volkan ÇABUK, OYAK RENAULT Malzeme Laboratuvarı Sorumlusu; Ekim 2013 v1.1

Kaynak • Punta ve Bosaj kaynak: Kaporta • MIG MAG: Gazaltı kaynak -Şasi • Lazer kaynak: Kaporta, vites

kutusu • Friksiyon kaynak: Vites kutusu,

motor supapları

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GERİ DÖNÜŞÜM

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Vehicle Recycle, Toyota, 2014

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Vehicle Recycle, Toyota, 2014

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Vehicle Recycle, Toyota, 2014

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Vehicle Recycle, Toyota, 2014

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Vehicle Recycle, Toyota, 2014

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Vehicle Recycle, Toyota, 2014

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Vehicle Recycle, Toyota, 2014

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Vehicle Recycle, Toyota, 2014

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Vehicle Recycle, Toyota, 2014

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Vehicle Recycle, Toyota, 2014

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Vehicle Recycling - Focusing on Sustainability, 2009 BMW

Definition according to EU directive for end-of-life vehicles 2000/53/EC: Reuse means any operation by which components of end-of life vehicles are used for the same purpose for which they were conceived Recycling means the reprocessing in a production process of the waste materials for the original purpose or for other purposes but excluding energy recovery. Recovery means a suitable process for ensuring that waste is recovered without endangering human health and without the use of processes or methods likely to harm the environment. Regeneration of acids is an example of a recovery operation.

Use of materials and re-use rates: As well as prohibiting certain materials such as Lead and Chromium (VI), the EU regulations also define in detail the secondary processing of certain vehicle components and resources. The directive (2005/64/EC) also requires that, from 2008 onwards, new vehicles should be reach a recycling target level of 85 percent and a recovery target level of 95 percent by 2015. This is a prerequisite for the type-approval of all new vehicle types from the end of 2008 onwards.

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UFUK TURU

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Brian Cantor, Automotive Engineering Lightweight, Functional, and Novel Materials , 8.

Concept of car manufacturing: Harmony of human beings, nature, and vehicles

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Brian Cantor, Automotive Engineering Lightweight, Functional, and Novel Materials , 8.

Number of vehicles and global population

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Brian Cantor, Automotive Engineering Lightweight, Functional, and Novel Materials , 8.

Vehicle crash safety and information safety

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Brian Cantor, Automotive Engineering Lightweight, Functional, and Novel Materials , 8.

New materials used in vehicles

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Brian Cantor, Automotive Engineering Lightweight, Functional, and Novel Materials , 8.

Material composition of a typical passenger vehicle

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Brian Cantor, Automotive Engineering Lightweight, Functional, and Novel Materials , 8.

Important issues for environmental protection

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Yrd. Doç. Dr. Abdullah DEMİR

Makine Mühendisliği

ÖNEMLİ BAZI HUSUSLAR

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Bernd (eißing | Metin Ersoy (Eds.), Chassis Handbook Fundamentals, Driving Dynamics, Components, Mechatronics, Perspectives, 2011.

Chassis system developers must always keep the following five goals in mind: 1. meeting timeline targets 2. satisfying functional requirements 3. ensuring quality 4. minimizing costs 5. optimizing weight

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Bernd (eißing | Metin Ersoy (Eds.), Chassis Handbook Fundamentals, Driving Dynamics, Components, Mechatronics, Perspectives, 2011.

Mock-up: Taklit Model, Maket: Bir makina, cihaz veya “nitenin, ölçek “zerine yapılmış modeli. Bu model; yeni bir gelişmeye ait imalatın incelenmesi ve denenmesinde veya hakiki makina, cihaz veya “nitenin işleme tarzının personele öğretilmesinde kullanılır. A mock-up of something such as a machine or building is a model of it which is used in tests or to show people what it will look like. A full-sized structural, but not necessarily functional, model built accurately to scale, used chiefly for study, testing, or display

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Bernd (eißing | Metin Ersoy (Eds.), Chassis Handbook Fundamentals, Driving Dynamics, Components, Mechatronics, Perspectives, 2011.

As is the case for the development of any technical product, chassis system developers must follow the following step-by-step process [2]: • planning and definition • concept studies • design and simulation • prototype construction and validation • tuning, optimization, and finally • series production.

Departments for the development of a new vehicle • development and design (engineering) • marketing, sales/customer service • controlling • procurement/logistics • production/planning • quality

Procurement (Tedarik): Personel, hizmet, ikmal maddeleri ve teçhizat temin işlemi

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Bernd (eißing | Metin Ersoy (Eds.), Chassis Handbook Fundamentals, Driving Dynamics, Components, Mechatronics, Perspectives, 2011.

Product development process (PDP)

SOP (start of production)

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Bernd (eißing | Metin Ersoy (Eds.), Chassis Handbook Fundamentals, Driving Dynamics, Components, Mechatronics, Perspectives, 2011.

V model of the development process

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Bernd (eißing | Metin Ersoy (Eds.), Chassis Handbook Fundamentals, Driving Dynamics, Components, Mechatronics, Perspectives, 2011.

Standard phases of product development

The product development process (PDP) can be divided into categories containing subprocesses such as concept creation, product planning, product development, and production and manufacturing planning. The standard structure of the product creation process and product development process can be seen in Figure. This diagram [3] is based on information obtained from 21 automakers in Europe, Japan and the United States with a total market share of 86 %.

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Bernd (eißing | Metin Ersoy (Eds.), Chassis Handbook Fundamentals, Driving Dynamics, Components, Mechatronics, Perspectives, 2011.

Superimposed trends: trends based on the extrapolation of the past, present trends, and future trends