candado etiqueta loto
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*Interrupcin de las fuentes de energa usando candado y etiqueta (LO/TO)
*Este material fue producido bajo la donacin numero 46B4-HT15 de la Seguridad Laboral y la Administracin de Salud pertenecientes al Departamento del Trabajo de los Estados Unidos. El material no representa necesariamente los puntos de vista o polticas del Departamento del Trabajo de los Estados Unidos. La mencin de marcas, productos comerciales, o de organizaciones no implica ningn aprobacin o apoyo con el gobierno de los Estados Unidos.
*Interrupcin de las fuentes de energa usando candado y etiqueta (LO/TO)29 CFR 1910.147 "LO/TO" se refiere a las practicas y procedimientos especficos para salvaguardar a los empleados de la emisin de energa inesperado o el arranque inesperado de maquinaria y equipo, o del escape de energa peligrosa durante actividades de servicio o mantenimiento.
Jennifer L. Schneider, Sc.D., CIH
*LO/TOLa mayora de los incidentes ocurren en lugares de trabajo alrededor de maquinaria o equipo de trabajoOtros incidentes ocurren por choque elctrico o materiales peligrososEsto puede prevenirse usando LO/TO (la interrupcin de las fuentes de energa usando candado y etiqueta) para contener la energa peligrosa
*LO/TO Cuando UsarlaPara Servicio y Mantenimiento de Equipo de TrabajoInstalacinInspeccinLimpiezaModificacinLubricacinAl destrabar Si el trabajador necesita quitar las guardas de seguridadCuando un trabajador necesita poner cualquier parte de su cuerpo dentro de la maquinariaPara evitar un arranque inesperado
*LO/TOFuentes de EnergaElctricoHidrulica y neumticaEnerga potencial de resortesGravedad QumicaRadiacinNeumticaTrmicaMecnica (de otras fuentes que no sean resortes)
*LO/TOObtener Estado de Energa CeroUtilizando la interrupcin de las fuentes de energa usando candado y etiqueta Nadie puede arrancar la maquinaria o el equipo de trabajo mientras este siendo limpiado o reparado
*LO/TOTres ClasificacionesPersonal Autorizado: se encarga de realizar el servicio y mantenimiento, y de aplicar los candados y etiquetasPersonal Afectado: opera la maquinaria, prepara las maquinas o el equipo de trabajo, y trabaja en la misma rea donde la interrupcin de las fuentes de energa usando candado y etiqueta ocurreOtros: pueden pasar por un rea donde se esta usando candado y etiqueta para la interrupcin de las fuentes de energa (ejemplo: empleado de oficina)
*LO/TODispositivos usados para el candadoCerrar con una llave y etiquetaCadenaBloquePlatinaPlatina ciega para bloquear el tubo
*LO/TODispositivos para EtiquetarLas etiquetas siempre deben estar unidas al candado o dispositivo de aislamiento de fuentes de energa Funciona como un dispositivo de comunicacinLA ETIQUETA DICE: NO OPERAR y esta sujetada firmemente
*LO/TOLos Candados y Etiquetas deben de ser usados por cada individuo trabajando en la maquina (revisar dos veces si hay energa proveniente de fuera o guardada), ya sea en el cerrojo mismo, o conectado a una caja con un cerrojo alterno Solo debe de ser quitado por el individuo, despus de completar el trabajo o repuesto por el turno nuevoEtiquetas sin candados solo se permiten cuando se toman medidas de proteccin igual o mas seguras que un candado ejemplo: tapa sobre boton de arranque con el fusible quitado del panel
*Candado y Etiqueta con candado de equipo de trabajo
*Candado y Etiqueta con etiqueta personal
*LO/TOLos seis pasos de LO/TOPreparacinApagar el equipo de trabajoAislar el equipo de trabajoAplicacin del dispositivo de interrupcin de fuentes de energa Soltar la energa guardadaVerificacin
*LO/TO Los seis pasos de LO/TO (continuado)Preparacin: identificar y aislar las fuentes de energa peligrosas, y entender como usar el equipo de trabajoApagar el equipo de trabajo: botones de apagado, y seguir procedimientos de apagadoAislar el equipo de trabajo: instalar un dispositivo para aislar fuentes de energa peligrosas
*LO/TO Los seis pasos de LO/TO (continuado)4. Aplicar Candados y Etiquetas: si a algo se le puede poner candado, DEBE de ser puesto; si no se puede entonces se DEBE de poner una etiqueta5. Soltar la Energa Guardada: protegerse contra energa residual6. Verificacin: tratar de activar el botn de arranque para asegurarse que todo esta apagado, revisar dispositivo de seguridad, y asegurarse que el rea esta libre
*LO/TOCuando se Completa el TrabajoRemover herramientas y equipo de trabajoGuardar una distancia seguraRemover los dispositivos de interrupcin de energaRestaurar la energaNotificar a los operadores y supervisores cuando se complete el trabajo
*LO/TONo Aplica CuandoSe realizan ajustes rutinariosSe realizan ajustes repetitivosSe trabaja con equipo con cable y enchufe que estn a la vistaSe realizan actividades integrales con la produccin
Siempre utilizar practicas de trabajo seguras
*LO/TOEntrenamiento de los EmpleadosEl patrn debe de proporcionar entrenamiento inicial y re-entrenamiento conforme se necesiteEl entrenamiento debe certificarse con el nombre del empleado y la fecha del entrenamiento
*LO/TOProcedimientos EscritosLa interrupcin rutinaria de fuentes de energa requieren que la compaa mantenga un procedimiento escrito para:Cada maquina o pedazo de equipo individual, oCada grupo de maquinas o pedazos de equipos similaresLa interrupcin no rutinaria de fuentes de energa tienen que tener un procedimiento escrito para la actividad de interrupcin.
*LO/TO Procedimientos EscritosLos procedimientos tienen que tener: Una declaracin del uso previsto del procedimiento Pasos procesales para el proceso de LO/TO para ese tipo de equipo. Pasos especficos para probar una maquina y determinar si se esta obteniendo un estado de cero energia Pasos para soltar o remover el equipo del LO/TO
*LO/TOInspecciones PeridicasSe realizan por lo menos de manera anual para asegurarse que los procedimientos de control de energa son efectivos y sigan siendo implementadosLa inspeccin tiene que ser certificada; identificar la maquinaria y equipo, contener la fecha, y notar a los empleados incluidos en la inspeccinRevisar con todos los usuarios autorizados
*LO/TOSituaciones donde solo se utiliza EtiquetaCuando a la maquina o equipo no se le puede poner candado El patrn puede modificar para permitir 100% LO/TOLa proteccin completa incluye cumplir con todas las provisiones para el etiquetado, adems de implementar medidas de seguridad adicionales
*LO/TOLO/TO AgrupadasLas interrupciones agrupadas incluyen hacer que cada empleado autorizado ponga su candado y etiqueta en el equipo al que se va a interrumpir la energa Visitar www.osha.gov/dts/osta/lototraining/tutorial/gr-loto.htm para obtener ejemplos de procedimientos agrupados
Cambio de Personal o de Turno - se realizan procedimientos especificos durante el cambio de turnos
*LO/TORemover el candado de alguien ausenteSe selecciona una sola persona en la compaa
La persona seleccionada tiene que:Hacer un esfuerzo razonable para encontrar al individuo ausenteAsegurarse de que es seguro remover el dispositivoEl individuo autorizado ausente tiene que ser notificado ANTES de reasumir el trabajo en la facilidad.
*LO/TOResumenLO/TO proporciona control de las fuentes de energa que podran causar lesiones durante el servicio o mantenimiento de maquinaria y equipoLos dispositivos tiene que ser nicos y substanciales Los individuos autorizados son los UNICOS que pueden aplicar candados, etiquetas y otros dispositivos de LO/TOLas etiquetas tienen que identificar quien aplico el dispositivoSe tienen de seguir los seis pasos.Se tienen desarrollar procesos escritosLas procesos agrupados para interrumpir la energa y para remover candados de individuos ausentes tienen que ser definidos
*Welcome to Lock Out/Tag Out safety training.*This material was produced under grant number 46B4-HT15 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.*"Lock Out/Tag Out" refers to specific practices and procedures to safeguard employees from the unexpected energization or startup of machinery and equipment, or the release of hazardous energy during service or maintenance activities.
When a piece of machinery or equipment is being serviced, maintained, cleared or unjammed, the energy sources that drive that machine must be turned off or isolated so that the machine can not operate and injure the operator or mechanic.When a piece of machinery or equipment is being serviced, maintained, cleared or unjammed, the energy sources that drive that machine must be turned off or isolated so that the machine can not operate and injure the operator or mechanic.
*Most incidents occur in the workplace around machinery or equipment; cut hands, crushed fingers or pinch-point nips are a few examples. Other incidents occur from electric shock, hazardous materials, chemical splashes, exposed wiring, or from inadequate control of hazardous energy sources. Many of these types of injuries can be avoided by using Lock Out/Tag Out to contain hazardous energy.
*Lock Out/Tag Out (LO/TO) is required when service or maintenance of equipment occurs. Servicing or maintenance is a workplace activity such as constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, and maintaining or servicing machines or equipment. These activities include lubrication, cleaning or un-jamming of machines or equipment and making adjustments or tool changes, where the employee may be exposed to the unexpected energizing or startup of the equipment or release of hazardous energy.
LO/TO is also required if a worker needs to remove or bypass a safety guard, and when workers are required to place their hands, arms, fingers or any body part into machinery or equipment. LO/TO ensures that the equipment will not start up unexpectedly.
Electrical energy: Energy that is caused by electrical current that provides power to run the machine.
Hydraulic Energy: Power that utilizes liquid under pressure in a piston or cylinder to drive a motor, engine or the movement of machinery.
Potential energy from springs: Energy caused by force. When a spring is wound or forced closed, it has force energy waiting to be released or un-sprung.
Gravitational Energy: Energy caused by gravity or weight that could cause a crushing injury from a falling object.
Chemical Energy: Hazards presented by either chemical reaction in a process or by the movement of chemicals themselves. Pipes and piping systems that provide chemicals to a process may need to be locked or tagged to prevent the feeding of these chemicals into a piece of equipment that is being serviced.
Radiation Energy: Caused by either radiant heat or radioactive sources that emit hazardous energy.
Pneumatic Energy: Uses compressed air to power the equipment or move materials. Air supplies must be shut down or locked out before working on pneumatic equipment.
Thermal Energy: Heat related energy. This can be through friction, chemical reaction, or heat generating equipment or processes (like ovens, kilns, welding, melting pots, etc). The heat source must be prevented from reaching the mechanic or service person to maintain their safe working conditions.
Mechanical Energy: Moving parts that may have force energy that needs to be restrained. For example: a rotating blade, such as on a lawnmower, may have residual energy in it if it was jammed. When the block or jam is removed the pent up energy remaining in the blade assembly could force the blade to spin, causing injury to the person un-jamming the blade assembly.
There may be other types of energy that could cause direct or indirect injury, such as steam, and these are not cited directly in this standard, but may be covered under the OSHA general duty clause. The general duty clause states that an employer has the responsibility to provide a safe and healthful work environment for its employees.*Isolating or eliminating the energy in a piece of machinery or equipment uses LO/TO to achieve what is commonly referred to as a zero energy state. This means that there is no energy flowing to the equipment that could cause it to activate or parts of the equipment to move or shift, potentially causing injury to the operator or service mechanic.
When LO/TO is used, all area operators and other employees in the area have been trained to their level of involvement with the LO/TO process, so these operators and employees know that equipment under LO/TO may not be started, or tampered with. However, the LO/TO process ensures that no one can start or activate the machinery or equipment while it is being repaired or cleaned.
Many injuries have occurred, when a service mechanic has followed MOST of the requirements of LO/TO, but they failed to actually apply the lock and tag, and an unknowing operator returns from a break and starts up the machine, not knowing that the mechanic is there.*There are three different levels of training that are required for employees. They are authorized individuals, affected individuals and other employees.
Authorized individuals are those who actually apply the locks, tags or other devices. Service mechanics, electricians, and some machine operators require this higher level of training, because they are directly involved in the LO/TO process.
Affected individuals are those who work with the machines or equipment that are locked and tagged by someone else. They may work in an area where LO/TO is being applied to either their machine or a co-workers machine.
Other employees are employees who may encounter a lock or tag as they walk by an area, and need to know what the devices look like, and not to touch or tamper with the devices. *There are several different types of devices that can be used for LO/TO. In all cases, the devices must be UNIQUE to the companys LO/TO program and can not be used for any other purpose (such as locking a cabinet or tool chest, or tagging a machine that is out of service for any other reason than a lockout).
A lock with one key and a tag is the most common LO/TO device used. Locks must be identifiable as a LO/TO lock, meaning all locks used for LO/TO must look the same throughout the company. (For example: they must all be gold-colored, or they must all have a green stripe). Locks must be substantial, in that they can not be easily broken open without the use of a special tool. Locks must always have tags with them.
Chains may also be used, and must also have a tag with them.
A block to prevent a machine from cycling or activating may also be considered a LO/TO device.
Flanges and pipe blanks or blinds are considered LO/TO devices as well, and must also have a tag.*Tags are always attached to the lock or to the energy isolation device (such as a chain, flange or pipe blank). Tags by themselves are not substantial enough to provide protection for LO/TO and must be supplemented by another LO/TO device or other equivalent means.
Tags serve only as a communication device. They must indicate the name of the authorized individual who applied the device, the date it was applied and the specific equipment, machine, or pipe that is being locked or blocked out.
Tags must state Do Not Operate or a similar statement, and must be securely fastened to the lock, chain or other LO/TO device.
*Locks and Tags are to be used by each authorized individual working on the machine. Each authorized individual should double check the equipment for extraneous power or stored energy before working on it.
LO/TO devices must be placed either on the hasp of the machine or start switch itself, or be able to be lockable to a box with alternate hasp.
Devices should only be removed by the authorized individual who applied the device after their work is complete. In the case of a shift-change, the oncoming shift worker should place their own LO/TO lock or device on the equipment. Locks and keys should not be transferred from one worker to another.
Tags without locks are only allowed additional protection is taken. Additional procedures or precautions must provide the same level of safety as if a lock was used. An example of this would be to place a cap over the start button of the machine and remove the fuse or circuit breaker in the electrical panel box. *This picture shows an example of a LO/TO-lock and an equipment tag that is affixed to an electrical switch. The lock is affixed so that the switch is in the off position. The tag is directly associated with the authorized individual who applied it, and is always associated with this particular type of lockout (in this case an electrical lockout, applied by an electrician or other qualified individual who has also been trained in LO/TO).
*This picture shows an example of a LO/TO-lock and a personal tag that is affixed to an electrical switch. The lock is affixed so that the switch is in the off position. The tag is directly associated with the authorized individual who applied it.*There are six major steps to applying LO/TO to machinery or equipment. They are:PreparationEquipment ShutdownEquipment IsolationApplication of LO/TO deviceRelease of stored energyVerification
Each of these steps will be explained on the next two slides. Written procedures for the LO/TO process should be used to assist in the performance of the six steps.*Preparation is the first step. The authorized individual must identify and isolate the energy sources and understand how to use the equipment. Identification of the energy sources is normally included in the written procedure for the equipment or machinery.
The second step of LO/TO is to shut down the equipment. Use any stop buttons and follow the standard operating procedures for turning the equipment off.
The third step is equipment isolation. This is where the sources of the energy are shut down. Circuit breakers may be turned off, or power to the machine is isolated so that it can not re-energize the equipment.*The fourth step of LO/TO of the lock, tag or other device. The lock is affixed to the equipment assuring that the equipment can not be restarted. If something can be locked out, it must be locked out. If it cannot be locked, it must be tagged and a supplemental or additional activity must be implemented to provide an equal level of safety to that which a lock would provide.
The fifth step is releasing the stored energy. Any existing energy in the circuits or in the machine must be released or dissipated before the service or maintenance activity occurs. Some types of equipment are able to store up energy over time. For example some electronic equipment must build up the electrical charge before it can activate or cycle. With this type of equipment, it may be required that the authorized individual periodically re-release the energy that builds up during the service or maintenance.
The sixth step is the most important step of any LO/TO application. That is verification. Test the equipment, turn it on or try activating the start button to ensure that everything is off. Double check any interlocks and be sure the area is clear of materials and people.*Not only is there a specific process and steps needed to apply a LO/TO device, there are also specific steps that need to be taken when releasing a piece of equipment or machinery from LO/TO.
When work is complete the authorized individual must:-Remove any tools & equipment from inside the machine and from the immediate area.-Ensure that all employees keep a safe distance from the equipment during the re-energization process.-Remove the LO/TO devices that were applied to the machine.-Restore the energy sources to the equipment, and then-Notify the machine operators and area supervisors that the work is complete and the equipment has been released from LO/TO status.*LO/TO does not apply during routine adjustments (such as calibration or size adjustments) or when performing repetitive adjustments.
Cord and plug equipment (those types of equipment that normally plug into a wall outlet) are also exempted from LO/TO requirements, provided the cord is kept within sight of the service person or mechanic. Cord and plug equipment should be unplugged from the wall outlet during service or maintenance unless the energy must be present to provide adequate service.
LO/TO also exempts service or maintenance activities that are integral to the production process. However, tool changes and clearing or unjamming must use a LO/TO device to protect the operator from stored energy hazards.
When in doubt, lock it out. Always use safe work practices.*The employer must train all three levels of employees (authorized, affected and other employees) in their responsibilities with regard to LO/TO.
Other Employees (those who may encounter a lock or tag during the course of normal business) must know and recognize what the devices used at the company are what they are used for. This group of people must have a very basic understanding of the intention of the regulation and be able to recognize a lock, tag or other LO/TO device and know that they should not touch or tamper with the device.
An Affected employee must have a more detailed knowledge of the regulation, as their job duties require them to operate or use a machine or equipment on which serving or maintenance is being performed under lock-out or tag-out, or whose job requires them to work in an area in which such serving or maintenance is being performed.
An Authorized Employee, however, is one who actually locks out, blocks out, or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance and who would be exposed to hazardous energy, if they did not lock, block or tag the machine. These employees must have a detailed knowledge of the procedure used for LO/TO and how to apply lockout/tagout to the machinery or equipment. This includes the six steps of LO/TO: preparing the area and the equipment, how to shut it down, how to isolate the energy sources, how to apply the devices, how to release the energy and how to verify the energy has been released. They must also understand when re-verification of energy release may be needed (for example if the energy could re-accumulate during the service or maintenance) and how to release the equipment from LO/TO once the work is completed.
Re-training must occur whenever the company has reason to believe that the authorized employee does not understand their responsibilities or does not perform the lockout properly.
Training must be documented with the employees name and the date of training (or re-training).*Written LO/TO procedures must be developed. Routine lockouts can be individual to a machine or piece of equipment, or can be grouped together for similar machines. For example: if a company owns one labeler and one bottler, then a procedure specific to each piece of machinery or equipment will need to be written. If the company owns three labelers and one bottler and the three labelers are similar to one another, then the company can write and maintain one procedure for all three labelers and one for the bottler, for example.
Whenever a non-routine lockout is performed, or one that is not normally required, a specific procedure must be developed for the particular task or activity that is non-routine. For example, the company owns a crusher, and it is normally lubricated and oiled each month. A procedure for that LO/TO application will be maintained. If that machine breaks and a major piece requires replacement, then a specific procedure for the replacement process will need to be written.*Written LO/TO procedures must have four specific parts: A statement of the intended use of the procedure (what it is for and who will use it) Procedural steps for the LO/TO process for that type of equipment. (This includes the 6 steps of LO/TO: Prepare, Shutdown, Isolate, Lock, Release Energy, and Verify) Specific steps for testing a machine to determine if a zero energy state is achieved Steps to release or remove the equipment from LO/TO (area and equipment clear, employees are safely positioned, device removal and restart)*Each LO/TO procedure for a routine lockout must be inspected periodically. In this case, periodically means at least once per year, if the lockout is performed at least that often. If a lockout is performed less frequently than once per year, the procedure must be reviewed BEFORE it is used.
The periodic inspection requires a review of the written procedure, and a demonstration of the lockout process for that equipment or machine. The inspection must be performed by someone OTHER than the person performing the lockout.
The inspection must be documented and certified. The documentation includes the specific identity of the piece of equipment being reviewed (or the specific procedure being reviewed), the date of the review and inspection and the names of all the people who participated in the review.
Every person who is authorized to use that procedure or perform a lockout on the piece of equipment must be included in the review. Group reviews are acceptable, or individual reviews, provided that each authorized employee for that LO/TO application has participated.*There are times when a machine or equipment is not capable of being locked out. Older equipment and machines, for example, may not have LO/TO mechanisms built into them and no place to lockout the energy source.
Employers may choose to modify this equipment and retro-fit it to allow for 100% LO/TO capability. Or, they may choose to implement additional or supplemental measures (administrative and procedural) that will accommodate the LO/TO process. In all cases, employees must be fully protected in any situation where LO/TO applies to the servicing or maintenance of machinery and equipment.
Examples of additional or supplemental measures may include items like:Removing the circuit breaker or fuse from the panel box that feeds the electrical energy to the machine, or locking out the panel box entirelyPutting additional procedures in place to provide protectionShutting down the process lines that precede the machine requiring service, orBarricading the area to ensure that no other employees other than the service mechanic can access the equipment.
Even with these additional or supplemental measures, a tag must still be affixed and used. Tag only LO/TO applications require additional employee information and training on the use and limitations of a tag-only process. Employees who use the tag only process must understand that:
Tags do not provide the physical restraint.Tags are not to be removed without authorization Tags are never to be bypassed, ignored, or otherwise defeated.Tags must be legible and understandable.Tags and attachments capable of withstanding the environment.Tags may evoke a false sense of security, and their meaning needs to be understood as part of the overall energy control program.Tags must be securely attached*Group lockouts are also covered in the regulations. Group lockouts occur when more than one person must be covered under lockout/tagout for the same task or activity. For example, if there are two or three mechanics that are providing repair to the same machine, or if there are electricians, plumbers and mechanics all working on the same process or equipment.
Group lockout procedures must be written, indicating the type of group lockout equipment that will be used. These procedures must specify the same items that an individual lockout/tagout procedure require, and must provide for a level of protection that is equal to that which an individual procedure would have. This means that everyone participating in the group lockout will be given the same level of protection as if they were performing an individual lockout. The OSHA website has examples of group lockout/tagout procedures.
There are two primary types of equipment used with group lockout/tagout. The first type is a multi-lock adapter. This device uses a hasp that locks onto a single machine. The body of the multi-lock adapter has several holes, so that each person can place their individual lock and tag onto the multi-lock adapter. The hasp of the adapter will not open until all locks are removed.
The second type of equipment uses a strong-box or other storage device. One main lock is placed on the machine or process line, and each mechanic or tradesperson puts their individual lock and tag into the strong box. They remove their lock from the box when they have completed their portion of the work. Once all locks are removed from the strong-box, the main lock can be removed from the machine or process line.
For group lockouts there must be one vested person who is given the responsibility to oversee the lockout/tagout process for all of the participants. This person is responsible for making sure that all locks and tags are accounted for throughout the job. They are vested with the key to the main lock, and may only remove the lock once all the work is done.
If a job will take more than one shift to accomplish, the vested person can transfer the responsibility to another person, however only one person can be vested at a time.*A specific process is defined in the regulation to safeguard the authorized individuals who apply locks and other LO/TO devices. This is called the absentee lock removal process. This process describes the process for removing a LO/TO device that was applied by an authorized individual, when that individual is no longer on-site at the facility.
Only one person should be designated at the company to supervise the absentee lock removal process. This person must be an authorized individual and trained under LO/TO to that level. Normally this person is the supervisor of the maintenance staff. This designated person must make every reasonable effort to notify the authorized person who applied the device that the device is being removed. They must ascertain or determine the status of the lockout to assure that it is safe to remove the LO/TO device. And they must be sure that the authorized person who applied the device knows that the device was removed BEFORE that authorized person resumes work at that facility. *The following is a brief summary of the information discussed in this training.
LO/TO provides for control of energy sources that could cause injury during service or maintenance of machinery and equipment.LO/TO devices must be unique to the LO/TO process and substantial enough to provide protection.Authorized individuals are the ONLY people who can apply locks, tags and other LO/TO devices.Tags must identify who applied the device.All six steps of the LO/TO process must be followed for each lockout.Written procedures must be developed and reviewed annually.Group lockouts and absentee lock removals must be defined and have specific processes to follow.